Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Nrhjpl tpQ;Qhdpapd; mQ;Qhd Muha;r;rp!

(jpUkfs;) 

gj;jpupiffspd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fq;fs; %d;W vd nkhopgH fw;wwp;e;NjhH. xd;W fw;gpj;jy; (Instruct). ,uz;lhtJ nra;jpfis njuptpj;jy; (Inform). %d;whtJ nghOJ Nghf;F (Entertainment ). 

ntWkNd gf;fq;fis epug;gpr; nra;jpfisf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhff; nfhLf;fhky; rKjhaj;Jf;F ed;ik juf;$ba> Vw;wk; juf;$ba> gyd; juf;$ba nra;jpfisg; gj;jpupiffs; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. 

gioa Guhzf; Fg;igfisAk;> fw;gidfisAk;> ,d;Dk; rpyehl;fspy; ,Ugj;njhuhk; Ehw;whz;by; fhyb vLj;J itg;gjw;F cyfk; jahuhfp tUfpw fhy fl;lj;jpy;>  gj;jpupiffs; gpuRupj;Jf; nfhz;bUg;gJ ftiyf;Fupa rq;fjpahFk;. mjpYk; Nrhjplk;> vz; rhj;jpuk; Nghd;w Nghypf; fiyfSf;F  Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;J %lek;gpf;iffis tsHf;f Kay;tJ jkpo; r%fj;ij fw;fhyj;Jf;Fg; gpd;js;Sk; Kaw;rpahFk;.  

""ek;ehL"" gj;jpupif khWgl;l fUj;Jf;fSf;Fk;> khWgl;l Nfhl;ghLfSf;Fk; fsk; mikj;Jf; nfhLg;gJ mjd; gy rpwg;Gf;fspy; xd;W. Mrpupaupd; gue;j Nehf;fj;jpw;Fk;  mJ ey;y vLj;Jf;fhl;L. Cupy; nrhy;thHfs; fyfk; gpwe;jhy;j;jhd; epahak; gpwf;Fk; vd;W. kdpjd; vd;w r%fg; gpuhzpf;Fk; Vida gpuhzpfSf;Fk; cs;s xNu tpj;jpahrk; kdpjd; jdJ MwhtJ mwpitg; ghtpj;J ey;yJ nfl;lij mwpe;J nfhs;fpwhd;. ,e;j MwhtJ mwpitg; gFj;jwpT vd;W nrhy;fpNwhk;. Neha; te;j gpd;dH kl;Lky;y Neha; tUk; Kd;dNu mjw;fhd jLg;G Crpiag; Nghl;L jd;idj; jw;fhj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;w mwpT kdpjDf;F kl;Lk; cz;L. 

A+d; khjk; 3k; ehs; ntspte;j ""ek;ehL"" ,jopy; ""tpehafH epfo;j;jpa ,uz;L mw;Gjq;fs;!""  vd;w jiyg;gpy; 05k; gf;fj;jpy; xU gug;ghd nra;jp Nghlg;gl;bUe;jJ. ,e;jr; nra;jpf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l Jizj; jiyg;G  ""jk;gpYtpy; jpUf;Nfhtpy; Myaj;jpw;F topghL nra;j te;j ahid kpushJ epd;W topghL! ahid Kfj;NjhL eha; <d;w Fl;b"" vd;gjhFk;.  

mjprak; xd;W- jk;gpYtpy; =fz;zif mk;kd; jpUf;NfhtpYf;F fhl;L ahid xd;W te;J topghL nra;jJ. gf;jHfs; nka;rpypHj;Jg; NGhdhHfshk;.   

mjprak; ,uz;L- kl;lf;fsg;G> $ohtb FWf;F tPjpapy; cs;s tPnlhd;wpy; tsHf;fg;gl;l eha; xd;W ahidj; jiyAld; $ba Fl;bnahd;iw <d;wJ. 

ehd; epidf;fpNwd; ""ek;ehL"" gj;jpupif MrpupaH ,e;jr; nra;jpia gj;jpupifapd; %d;whtJ Nehf;fkhd '' nghOJNghf;F"" vd;w mbg;gilapy; ,e;jr; nra;jpia Nghl;bUf;fyhk;.

,Ue;Jk; mwptpay; ehSk; nghOJk; nra;J fhl;Lk; tpe;ijfs;- epyhTf;fhd gazq;fs; > mz;lntsp Muha;r;rpfs;>  nraw;ifKiwapy; Foe;ijfs; cl;gl capupdq;fisg; gpwg;gpj;jy;> mz;l ntspia tyk; tUk; tpz;ntspf; fyq;fs;> Ma;T $lq;fs;> nrt;tha;f; fpufj;jpy; kdpjid ,wf;f vLf;fg;gLk; Kaw;rpfs; xd;Wk;   'mw;Gjq;fs;" Mfj; njupahky; fhl;L ahid Myaj;Jf;F tUtJk;> ehnahd;W ahid Kfj;NjhL Fl;b <DtJ kl;Lk;  ngupa mw;Gjk; vd;W gugug;ghf nra;jp NghLtJ kf;fs; kdjpy; %lek;gpf;ifia tsHf;fj;jhd; cjtp nra;Ak;. 

,d;Dk; xU ngupa Ntjid vd;dntd;why; mwptpay; fz;L gpbj;j fzdp> mr;R ae;jpuk;> njhiyNgrp> njhiyefy;> njhlHtiyak; ,tw;wpd; cjtpNahL gpurtpf;fg;gLk; gj;jpupif ,g;gbahd nra;jpfisg; gpuRupg;gjw;Fg;  gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ vd;gJjhd;.  

eha; ahid Kfj;Jld; Fl;b xd;iw <DtJ mw;Gjky;y. mJ me;j tpf;fpdk; jPHf;Fk; tpehafiuNa mtkjpf;Fk; vj;jdkhFk;. NghAk; NghAk; tpehafH mw;Gjk; xd;iw epfo;j;jpf;fhl;l  eha; xd;Wjhd; fpilj;jjh? 1956k;  Mz;L ,df; fytuj;jpd; NghJ jpUf;NfhNzRtu Myaj;jpy; ,Ue;j gps;isahH rpiyia rpq;fsf; fhilaHfs; mbNahL  ngaHj;njLj;J gf;fj;jpy; cs;s flypy; tPrpdhHfs;. Rk;kh tPrtpy;iy. ""fzgjp nja;Nth ehz;l fPah" (gps;isahH Fspf;fg;NghdhH) vd;W vOjp itj;Jtpl;L tPrpnawpe;jhHfs;. mw;Gjk; vd;gJ cz;ikahdhy; mg;NghJ my;yth tpehafH jd; iftupifiaf;  fhl;bapUf;f Ntz;Lk;? 

rpy khjq;fSf;F Kd; ,Nj khjpup fhl;L ahid xd;W fpspnehr;rp tl;lf;fr;rpapy; cs;s xU tPl;by; Eise;J tPl;Lj; jiytiu mbj;Jf; nfhd;W tpl;ljhfr; nra;jp te;jJ.  

rhkp juprdk; nra;j Kjy; ahid gf;jpf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhfTk;> flTspd; mw;Gjj;Jf;F cjhuzkhfTk; fhl;Ltjhdhy; Mis mbj;Jf; nfhd;w gpe;jpa ahidia vjpy; NrHg;gJ? 

kPz;Lk;  ""cyfk; ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;by; mopAkh? mopaj;jhd; Ntz;Lkh?"" vd;w gugug;ghd ePz;l Nrhjplf; fl;Liu xd;iw A+iy 8 k; ehs;  ""ek;ehL"" ,jopd; eLg;gf;fk; ,uz;bYk;> ,d;ndhU ghjp gf;fj;jpYk; ntspapl;Ls;sJ. me;jf; fl;Liuia vOjpatH ahH njupAkh? ""Nrhjpl tpQ;Qhdp"" ""itj;jpafyhepjp"" "" NguhrpupaH"" vd;W Rkf;fKbahJ gy gl;lq;fisf; Rkf;Fk; xUtH ,e;jf; fl;Liuia vOjpapUf;fpwhH.  

,t;tsT gl;lq;fisr; Rkg;gtH nghOJNghf;Ff;fhf vOjhky; jkpo;r; rKjhaj;Jf;F gyd;juf; $ba> Vw;wk; juf;$ba fl;Liu vOjpapUe;jpUf;fyhk;. Fiwe;jJ ,d;iwa R+o;epiyf;F Vw;g rq;f fhy ,yf;fpaj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; Gwehw;W tPuj;ij vLj;Jf; fhl;b me;j tPuj;Jf;F vy;yhk;  ,d;iwa tp.Gypfs; vg;gb ,yf;fzkhf tpsq;FfpwhHfs; vd;gij xg;G ePf;fp xU fl;Liu vOjpapUf;fyhk;. hy; mij tuNtw;wpUf;fyhk;.  

Fwpj;j fl;LiuahsH ,g;gbahd fl;Liu vOJtJ ,Jjhd; Kjy; jlitay;y. ,jw;F Kd;dUk; jdJ Nrhjpl ""Muha;r;rpapd;"" fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis ''bah'' '',bah'' vd;w ngupy; xU Ehiy vOjp ntspapl;Ls;shH.  ';b; vd;w vOj;J akDf;F cupaJ vd;gJ ,tuJ fz;Lgpbg;G. me;j vOj;Jf;fis jq;fs; ngaupy; itj;Jf; nfhz;bUg;gtHfSf;F vg;NghJk; Mgj;J. mw;g MAs;> mfhy kuzk;. cjhuzj;Jf;Fr; nrhy;y Ntz;Lk; vd;why; ,b mkpd;> ,sturp lahdh!  

,e;j ,lj;jpy; mwptpaiyg;gw;wp nfhQ;rk; nrhy;yNtz;Lk;. mwptpaiy ,uz;lhfg; gpupf;fyhk;.   

Ntjtpay;> ,aw;gpay;>  capupay;>  fzpjk; Nghd;w Jiwfis MuhAk;   ,aw;if mwptpay; xd;W. ,it fbd mwptpay; (Hard Science) vdg;gLk;. 

khDltpay;> njhy; nghUspay;> jj;Jtk;> tuyhW> nghUshjhuk; Nghd;w  kdpj r%fj; Jiwfisg; gw;wp Muha;tJ r%f mwptpay; kw;wJ. ,it nkypT mwptpay; (Soft Science) vd;W ngaH ngWk;. 

Ma;Tfshy; nka;g;gpf;fg;glf; $ba Ma;T Kiwiar; r%ftpaYf;Fg; nghUj;Jk; NghJ mJ r%f tpQ;Qhdk; vd;w jFjpiag; ngWfpwJ.  

fbd mwptpay; xU Fwpg;gpl;l cz;ikia vj;jidjuk;> vq;F  Ma;T nra;J ghHj;jhYk; xNu ngWNgw;iwNa nfhLf;Fk;.  xU tl;lj;jpd; gug;gsT igMHtHf;fk; vd;gJ vj;jid Kiw ve;j ,lj;jpy; Nghl;lhYk; xNu KbitNa jUk;. nkypT mwptpaypy; mg;gbapy;iy. Ehw;Wf;F EhW tpOf;fhL rupahf ,Uf;fhJ.   

Mdhy; Nrhjplk; ,e;j ,uz;L tif mwptpay; vjidAk; NruhJ. Nrhjplj;Jf;F Ma;T $lNk fpilahJ. mJ ntWk; ek;gpf;iffspd; mbg;gilapy; mike;j Nghyp mwptpay; (Pseudo-Science) jhd;.  

fle;j Mbj; jpq;fs; 30> 31> Mtzpj; jpq;fs; 01y; ,q;F eilngw;w 7tJ  cyfr; irt khehl;by; fye;J nfhz;l mZ tpQ;Qhdp jpU.  R+upa%Hj;jp gd;dpU jpUKiwfs; gw;wpg; NgRk; NghJ ,ilapy;  ""Nrhjplj;ij ek;ghjPH"" vd;W gfpuq;fkhff; $wpdhH. jdJ  $w;Wf;Fr; rhd;whf jpUehTf;fur ehadhupd;  NfhsW gjpfj;jpy; ,Ue;J ghly;fis ghbf;fhl;bdhH. ""Nrhjplj;ij ek;ghjPH"" mtH nrhd;dNghJ mitNahH gyj;j ifnahyp vOg;gp jq;fs; rk;kjj;ijj; njuptpj;;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;. mijg; ghHj;j vdf;F kpf kfpo;r;rpahf ,Ue;jJ.

cyfpy; ,d;W 599 Nfhb kf;fs; tho;fpwhHfs;. ,tuJ Muha;r;rpf;F vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;ltHfsJ vz;zpf;if vt;tsT? 'l' dh vOj;J tUk; ngaHfisf; nfhz;l Demetrius, Democritus,  Descartes,  Demagogues, Demosthenes, De Gaulle, Benjamin Disraeli,  De Mille,  Rene Descartes, King David, Dante, Donatello,  Leonardo Da Vinci,  Danton,  De Valera, Charles Darwin  Nghd;wtHfs; vg;gbg; GfNohL tho;e;J kiwa Kbe;jJ? ,sturp ladhTf;F Vw;gl;l fjpay;yth ,tHfSf;Fk; Vw;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;? 

,e;jr; NrhjplHfSf;F ,Uf;fpw thrp vd;dntd;why; jq;fSf;Fj; jhq;fNs kpf ml;lfhrkhd gl;lq;fisr; R+l;bf; nfhs;syhk;. Nrhjpl Mrhd;> Nrhjpl rpNuhz;kzp> Nrhjplr; rf;futHj;jp> Nrhjpl tpQ;Qhdp.....   ,g;gbf; Nfl;f Mspy;iy vd;w Jzptpy; MSf;fhs; Vfg;gl;l gl;lq;fis jq;fSf;Fj; jhq;fNs  R+l;bf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. rup mtHfsJ mw;g Mirfisf; nfLg;ghNdd;. ngUe;jd;ikNahL tpl;L tpLNthk;. 

Mdhy; jd;id itj;jpa fyhepjp> vd;W nrhy;fpwhNu mg;gbnad;why; kUj;Jtj;jpy; lhf;lH gl;lk; (Doctor of Medicine) thq;fpatuh? Mk; vd;why; ve;j ehl;Lg; gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; vj;jid Mz;Lfs; gbj;J ,e;jg; gl;lk; thq;fg;gl;lJ? NguhrpupaH vd;why; ve;jg; gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy;> Fiwe;j gl;rk; ve;jf; fy;Yhupapy; NguhrpupaH gjtp tfpj;jhH vd;W mtuhy; nrhy;y KbAkh? 

Vd; ,g;gbahd Nfs;tpfis ehd; Nfl;fpNwd; vd;why; xU cz;ikahd  itj;jpafyhepjp> NguhrpupaH  ,g;gbahd mgj;jkhd> mwptPdkhd xU fl;Liuia> mJTk; Muha;r;rp vd;w NghHitapy; xUNghJk; vOjpapUf;f KbahJ. mg;gb vOJtJ  gl;lg;gbg;Gg; gbj;j  xUtuJ gbg;Gf;Fk; gl;lq;fSf;Fk; khngUk; ,Of;F.   

Nrhjplk; xU Nghyp tpQ;Qhdk; (Pseudo Science)   vd;gJjhd; mwptpayhsHfspd; KbT. ,d;iwa etPd thdtpaYf;Fr; Nrhjplk;jhd; Kd;Ndhb. thdtpay; Muha;r;rpapd; mbg;gilapy; mwptpayhf gupkhzpj;jNghJ Nrhjplk; cyfk; ,e;jg;  gpugQ;rj;jpd; ikak;> mJ jl;ilahdJ. mJ xU ,lj;jpy; mirahJ epw;f VO Fjpiufs; G+l;ba Njupy;  R+upaDk; kw;wf; Nfhs;fSk; mjidr; Rw;wp tUfpd;wnjd;w ""mwpNthL"" mJ epd;W tpl;lJ.  

 ghujpahH jkpo;rhjpia kdjhu  Nerpj;jtH. mjdhy; jkpo;r; rhjpapy; kz;bf; fple;j %l ek;gpf;iffisg; ghHj;Jf; Nfhgg;gl;ltH.

""jkpo; kf;fs; vUikfisg; Nghy  vg;NghJk; <uj;jpNyNa cl;fhUfpwhHfs;. <uj;jpNyNa elf;fpwhHfs;. <uj;jpNyNa gLf;fpwhHfs;.  <uj;jpNyNa rikay;> <uj;jpNyNa czT.

cyHe;j jkpod;  kUe;Jf;Ff; $l mfg;glkhl;lhd;. ehs;Njhwk; rpyH ,we;J NghfpwhHfs;. kpQ;rpapUf;Fk; %lH ""tpjptrk;"" vd;fpwhHfs;. Mklh tpjptre;jhd;. "mwptpy;yhjtHfSf;F ,d;gkpy;iy" vd;gJ <rDila tpjp. jkpo;ehl;bNy rhj;jpuq;fspy;iy. cz;ikahd rhj;jpuq;fis tsHf;fhky;> ,Ug;gdtw;iwAk; kwe;J  tpl;Lj; jkpo; ehl;Lg; ghHg;ghH ngha;f; fijfis %luplk; fhl;b tapW gpioj;J tho;fpwhHfs;""(ghujpahH fl;Liufs;). 

""2000 Mz;by; cyfk; mopAk; vd;gJ xU Fj;J kjpg;Gj;jhd;"" vd;fpwhH NrhjplH. Vd; mijj; Jy;ypakhf> mr;nrhl;lhfr; nrhy;y Kbatpy;iy? ""1997k; Mz;by; ,Ue;J 2007 Mz;Ltiu  gj;J tUlKk;  njhlHe;J  Aj;jq;fs; Vw;gl;L cyfk; xU mikjp epiy Vw;gLk;."" xUf;fhy; cyfk; mopag; Nghfpd;wJ vd;W M&lk;. mLj;j fzk; gj;J tUlj;Jf;Fr; rz;il mg;Gwk; mikjp epyTk; vd;W Nrhbg;G. Vd; ,e;j Kuz;ghL? ,jw;Fk; tPjpNahuj;jpy; ,Ue;J fpsp Nrhjplk; nrhy;ypg; gpiof;fpwtDf;Fk; vd;d tpj;jpahrk;? (,g;NghJ fpsp Nrhjplk; nrhy;fpwtDila fpsp $l gioa Xiy eWf;Fffis thahy; ft;tp vLj;Jg; NghLtjw;Fg; gjpy; xypehlhit vLj;Jg; NghLtjw;F  "Kd;Ndwp" tpl;lJ!)   

"",d;iwa jpdk; tpz;ntspf; fyq;fs; < nkha;g;gJ Nghy; Nkw;gug;gpy; mz;l ntspapy; G+kpAld; NrHe;J jhWkhwhfr; Roy;fpd;wd. mjdhy; G+kpf;Ff; fpilf;f Ntz;ba kw;wf; fpufq;fspd; fjpH tPr;R khWgLfpwJ. ,e;j khWghl;lhy; mfhy kio> Gay;> tul;rp> gapH tpisahik> kf;fspd; Fzkhw;wk; ahTk; eilngWfpd;wd"" ,g;gbr; NrhjplH $WfpwhH. ,J ghuJuhkhd fz;Lgpbg;G. mnkupf;f Njrpa tpz;ntspf; fofj;jhUf;Fj; (NASA)  njupahj Muha;r;rp KbT! Nehgy; gupRf;Fj;  jFjpAila tpz;ntsp ""Muha;r;rp""! 

mJ rup. ,e;j khngUk; fz;Lgpbg;ig mjhtJ tpz;ntspapy; jhWkhwhfr; Roy;fpd;w tpz;ntspf; fyd;fshy; G+kpf;Ff; fpilf;f Ntz;ba kw;wf; fpufq;fspd; fjpH tPr;R khWgLfpwJ vd;w fz;Lgpbg;ig ve;j Ma;T $lj;jpy; ve;jf; fUtpfisf; nfhz;L Muha;e;J fz;L gpbj;jhH vd;W nrhy;y KbAkh? cq;fspd; ,e;jf; fz;L gpbg;ig> tpQ;Qhdpfis tpLq;fs;>  Vida NrhjplHfs; Vw;Wf; nfhz;Ls;shHfsh? cq;fspd; 'fz;Lgpbg;G' cz;ikahapd; ePq;fs; nrhy;tJ Nghy;  ""Nrhjplk; ngha;f;fpwJ "" vd;gij Vida NrhjplHfs; xj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfsh? 

,e;j cyfk; njhlq;fpa fhyk; njhl;L kio> nts;sk;> vupkiy> epyeLf;fk; Nghd;w ,aw;if mopTfs; ,lk;ngw;w tz;zk; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,dpAk;; ,lk; ngWk;.  ,J VNjh fypfhyj;jpy; kl;Lk; eilngWk; mdHj;jq;fs; my;y. mJ rup ,g;NghJ eilngWtJ fypfhyk; vd;Wk; mJjhd; cyfpy;  fhzg;gLk; khWjy;fSf;F fhuzk; vd;Wk;   nrhy;tJ rupnad;why; vg;gb ,Nj fyp fhyj;jpy; kdpjHfs; ePz;l MANshL thoKbfpwJ? tpz;izAk; kz;izAk; cyh tu KbfpwJ?  mk;ik> NghypNah Nghd;w Neha;fis Kw;whf xopf;f Kbe;jJ? fhrk;> ePupopT> nrq;fkhup> Vw;G Neha;fSf;F kUe;J fz;L gpbf;f Kbe;jJ?  ,Ujak;> fz;> fy;yPuy; Nghd;wtw;iw  khw;W mWitr; rpfpl;ir %yk; nghUj;j KbfpwJ? kdpjdpd; ruhrup taJ vOgJ - vz;gjhf vg;gb cau Kbe;jJ? kpd;rf;jp> mZrf;jp> Mfha tpkhdk;> thndhyp> njhiyf;fhl;rp> njhiyNgrp> njhiyefy;> fzdp> tPbNah> fkuh> njhiy ngUf;fp> tpz;fyk;> Test-tube  Foe;ijfs; ,g;gb Mapuf;fzf;fhd fz;Lgpbg;Gfisf; fz;L gpbf;f Kbe;jJ? kpf tpiutpy; gOjhd ,Ujaj;ij mfw;wptpl;L nraw;if ,Ujak; nghUj;jg; NghtJ vg;gbr; rhj;jpakhfpwJ?  

xUf;fhy; ,J fypAfk; vd;W tUj;jg;gLk;  NrhjplH mLj;j fzk; Kd;ngy;yhk; khjk; Kk;khup nga;jJ ,g;NghJ mg;gbapy;iy vd;W Kd;Df;Fg; gpd; Kuzhfr; nrhy;fpwhH.  

"" vJ vg;gbapUg;gpDk; ,e;j ,lj;jpNy xU Kf;fpa nra;jpia vdJ Muha;r;rp  thapyhf ehd; mwpe;j cz;ikia ,jpNy ehd; Fwpg;gplf; flikg; gl;Ls;Nsd;. mjhtJ jkpopdk; xt;nthU 600 tUlq;fSf;F xU jlit vOr;rpAk; tPo;r;rpAk; mile;jJ tuyhW fz;l cz;ik. filrp tPo;r;rp 15k; Ehw;whz;by; ,uh[uh[d; fhyj;jpy; Vw;gl;lJ. mJjhd; jkpod; nfhbfl;bg; gwe;j fhyk;. mj;Jld; jkpod; tho;tpy; tPo;r;rp Vw;gl;lJ. mjd; gpd; mtd; jiy vLf;fNt ,y;iy"" vd;fpwhH NrhjpltpQ;Qhdp NrhkRe;juk;. 

,q;Nfjhd; Nrhjpl tpQ;Qhdpapd; mwpahik nfhbfl;bg; gwf;fpwJ. ,uh[uh[d; fhyk; 15k; Ehw;whz;L vd;gJ tuyhw;W Nkhrb.  xU gj;jhk; tFg;G rupj;jpu khztDf;Fj; njupe;jpUf;Fk; cz;ik xU "" NguhrpupaH""> ""itj;jpafyhepjp""> ""Nrhjpl tpQ;Qhdp""f;F (,uh[uh[d; fhyk;) njpahky; ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy; ,uh[uh[dJ fhyj;ij 4 Ehw;whz;L - Mk; ehd;F  Mz;L my;y ehd;F Ehw;whz;L - Kd;Df;Fj; js;spajw;F NrhjplUf;F xU mtrpak;> mtruk; ,Uf;fpwJ. mg;gbr; nra;jhy;jhd; mtuJ ""Muha;r;rpapy;"" fz;Lgpbj;j 600 tUlq;fSf;F xUKiw jkpopdk; vOr;rpAk; tPo;r;rpAk; mile;jJ vd;w tuyhw;W ""cz;ik"" ruptUk; ! 

,uh[uh[d; (985-1014) tho;e;j fhyNk njupahj xUtuJ Muha;r;rpapd; 'juk;' vg;gb ,Uf;Fk; vd;gij vdJ thrfHfspd; jPHg;Gf;Nf tpl;L tpLfpNwd;.   

fypfhyj;jpy; "",k; khWjYfspdhy; Nrhjplk; ngha;f;fpwJ"" vd;W nrhy;Yk; NrhjplH gpd;dH ,yq;iff;F rhjfk; fzpf;fpwhH. mjw;F ,yq;if Rje;jpuk; ngw;w ehisj; NjHe;njLf;fpwhH. ve;j mbg;gilapy; ,e;jj; Njjp NjHe;njLf;fg; gl;lJ? ,yq;if Rje;jpuk; ngw;w ehs; xU ""gpwg;ig"" Fwpg;gjhf vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; ,yq;if ,we;J =yq;fh FbauR Mfg;  ""gpwe;j"" 1972k; Mz;L Nk 22k; ehis Vd; gpwe;j ehshff; nfhz;L rhjfk; fzpf;ff; $lhJ? my;yJ 1972k; Mz;L nfhz;Ltug;gl;l ahg;ig Fg;igapy; vwpe;J tpl;L kw;WNkhH ahg;gpd; %yk;  =yq;fh FbauR vd;gij =yq;fh rdehaf Nrhryp];L FbauR vd;W ehkfuzk; nra;j  1978Mk; Mz;L Mf];l; 16 k; ehis  Vs; gpwe;j ehshff; nfhz;L rhjfk; fzpf;ff; $lhJ?  

,jpypUe;j njuptJ vd;d ntd;why; ve;j mwptpay; mbg;gilAk; ,y;yhky; NrhjplHfs; jq;fsJ kdk; Nghd Nghf;fpy; jq;fs; trjpf;F Vw;g ,e;j rhjfq;fisg; GidfpwhHfs;. 

nkhj;jj;jpy; NrhjpltpQ;Qhdpapd; fl;Liu ngupa Nrhjpl NkhrbahFk; ( fraud);. mtuJ gl;lg; gbg;Gf;fs; ( vk;.V. gpvr;.b.> bypl;) cz;ikahdhy; mtH jhd; gbj;j gbg;ig tpoYf;F ,iwf;fpwhH vd;gNj vd; Kbthd vz;zk;.  ,g;gbg; gl;ltHfs; jhq;fSk; nfl;L kw;wtHfisAk; nfLf;fpwhHfs;. jkpod; ePuhtp nfhz;L Gl;L mtpf;ff; fw;Wf; nfhz;lijtpl NtW cUg;gbahd fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis Vd; ,J fhytiu fz;Lgpbf;fj; jtwpdhd; vd;gjw;F ,e;jr; Nrhjplupd; Muha;r;rpAk;> Muha;r;rpapy; gpwe;j  mtuJ fl;LiuAk; ey;y vLj;Jf; fhl;L. 

jkpoHfs; rpe;jpf;fg; gof Ntz;Lk;. Nrhjplk; Nghd;w  %lek;gpf;iffis> Njs;itaw;w  gioa Fg;ig $oq;fis tPrptpl;L Nkw;Fyf mwptpay;  fiyfisg;  gbj;J Kd;Ndw Ntz;Lk;. kyHfpd;w jkpoPoj;jpy; mwptpay; NfhNyhr;r Ntz;Lk;. rhjp> kj Ngjkw;w Gj;jk; Gjpa rKjhak; gilf;fg; gl Ntz;Lk;.  ahid rhkp Fk;gpl;lJ mw;Gjk;> mijtpl mw;Gjk; ehnahd;W ahidj; jiyNahL xU Fl;bia <d;wJ vd;w fw;fhyg; ghkuf; fijfisj; Jhf;fpj; Jhu vwpe;J tpl;L gFj;jwptpd; JizNahL mwptpay; ghijapy; jkpopdk; jkpoPoj;jpy; mLj;j Ehw;whz;by; ntw;wp eil> tPW eil Nghl Ntz;Lk;. ,JNt vd; Mir. Ntz;LNfhs;.  (ek;ehL-201)