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Nrhjplg; Gul;L

Gfo;ngw;w thdpayhsH Mupagl;lH     

(42)

ef;fPud;

ehrh mDg;gpa Opportunity vd;w ,uz;lhtJ NwhtH nrt;thapy; fle;j rdtup 25,y; gj;jpukhf 60 mb gs;sj;jpy; jiu ,wq;fpAs;sJ.  jiuapwq;fpa ,lk; fUQ;rptg;G epw kzy; Jfs;fs; epiwe;j ,lkhFk;. Mdhy; mjidr; Rw;wpas;s jiu rhk;gy; epwkhff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. nrt;thapd; vjpHg;Gwk; 6>600 fw;fs; (10>620 fpkP )Jhuj;jpy; jiuapwq;fpa ]pgpwpl; Nghd;Nw ,JTk;; nrt;thapy; jz;zPH ,Uf;fpwjh? gpuhz thA ,Uf;fpwjh? vd Ma;T elj;Jk;.  

Vw;fdNt mq;fpUe;J  Opportunity xspg;glq;fis mDg;gp tUfpwJ. rdtup 30Mk; ehs; G+kpapy; ,Ue;J mDg;gg;gl;l rkpf;iQf;F ,zq;f yhd;liu tpl;L 10 mb efHe;Js;sJ. tpahof;fpoik (ngg;utup 4) Opportunity mq;Fs;s fw;fis Muha ,Uf;fpwJ. ehrhTf;F ,d;ndhU kfpo;r;rpahd nra;jp. rpwpJ fhyk; 'Neha;tha;g;gl;L' ,Ue;j ]pgpupl; ,g;NghJ Fzkhfp gioagb ,aq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. vdNt ,g;NghJ  ,uz;L NwhtHfSk; Vf fhyj;jpy; nrt;thapd; vjpnujpH jiug; gFjpia Ma;e;J jfty;fs; mDg;gg; Nghfpd;wd. Astrologymars42.jpg (26032 bytes)

,Nj rkak; Kk; %Hj;jpfs;> Kg;gj;J Kf;Nfhb NjtHfs;> fpd;duH> fpk;GUlH thOk; Gz;zpa G+kpahd ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J xU Nrhfkhd nra;jp te;Js;sJ. cyfstpy; nghUshjhuj;jpy; Ntfkhf tsHr;rp mile;J tUk; 10 ehLfspy; ,e;jpahTk; xd;whf jw;NghJ cs;sJ. MdhYk; mq;Fs;s Vio kf;fspd; tho;f;ifj; juk; jpUg;jpfukhf ,y;iy. ViofSf;F fpilf;Fk; cztpd; msT Fiwthf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,jdhy; Viofspd; thq;Fk; rf;jp Fiwthf ,Uf;fpwJ.  'cyfstpy; kpfTk; Vo;ik epiyapy; cs;stHfspy; 3,y; xU gFjpapdH ,e;jpahtpy;jhd; tho;fpd;wdH' vd;gJjhd; me;j Nrhfr; nra;jp. ,y;iy> mjpHr;rp nra;jp. tWik xopg;G ebtbf;iffspy; <Lgl;Ls;s gy;NtW mikg;Gf;fisr; NrHe;j NguhsHfSk;> ty;YdHfSk;  fye;J nfhz;l jpy;;ypf; fUj;juq;fpy; Ngrpa nr%H  rpkpj;jhd; ,e;jr; nra;jpiar;  nrhy;ypapUf;fpwhH.  

 

xU ehisf;F xU nlhyUf;Ff; Fiwthd tUthapy; thOk; xUtH tWikf;Nfhl;Lf;Ff; fPo; tho;gtH vd;gJ tWikf;Nfhl;Lf;F midj;Jyfk; nfhLf;Fk;  tiutpyf;fzk; Mfk;.  ,e;j tiutpyf;fzj;jpd;gb ,e;jpahtpy; 35 Nfhb NgH  (26 tpOf;fhL) tWikapy; thLgtHfshf cs;sdH.

 

fhrp tpRtehjH> jpUg;gjp ntq;fNlRtuH> rgupkiy ma;ag;gd;> godp KUfd;> kJiu kPdhl;rp fhQ;rp fhkhl;rp Nghd;w gzf;fhuf; flTsH jq;fisj; NjbtUk; gf;jHfsplk; ,Ue;J ghy; gok; gzk;> eif el;L thq;fpf; nfhz;L jPuhj Neha;fisj; jPHj;J mUs;ghypj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ ,e;jpa ehl;by; Vd; ,e;j tWik? vjw;fhf 35 Nfhb kf;fis gl;bdp thl;LfpwJ? xd;gJ Nfhs;fSk; ,e;j  kf;fspd; rhjfj;jpy; nrhy;yp itj;jhy;Nghy; gifahf ,Uf;fpd;wdth?

 

cz;ik vd;dntd;why; Nfhapy; Fsk; flTs; Nfhs;fs; ,tw;Wf;Fk; tWikf;Fk; ve;jj; njhlHGk; ,y;iy. ,e;jpa ehl;L kf;fspd; tWikf;F Kf;fpa fhuzk; kf;fs; ngUf;fk;. xt;nthU Mz;Lk; xU mT];jpNuypahit (2 Nfhb kf;fs;) ,e;jpah $l;bf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

 

gps;isiag; ngWgtHfs; flTs; nfhLf;fpwhH thq;fpf; nfhs;fpNwhk; vd jiyf;F Ie;J MW gj;J vd;W ngw;Wj; js;SfpwhHfs;. epiyik mg;gb ,Uf;Fk;NghJ EhW Nfhbiaj; jhz;btpl;l ,e;jpa kf;fSf;Fj; Njitahd czT cil kUj;Jtk; fy;tp ,Ug;gplk; ,tw;Wf;F vq;Nf NghtJ? kf;fs; njhifiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;jhtpl;lhy; ,e;jpahtpd; nghUshju tsHr;rp vd;gJ Xl;ilg; ghidf;Fs; jz;zPH tpl;l fijahfj;jhd; ,Uf;Fk;!

 

mwptpaYk; tho;tpaYk; Nky;ehl;by; tWikia xopj;Js;sJ. Mdhy; ,e;jpahtpy; mwpahikAk; %lek;gpf;ifAk; tWikia tsHf;fpwJ!              

 

,e;jpa thdpaypd; tsHr;rpf;F gq;fspg;Gr; nra;jtHfspy; Nruehl;ilr; NrHe;j Mupag;gl;lH (fpgp 476-520) vd;gtH Fwpg;gplj;jf;f xUtH. ,e;jpah cUthf;fpa Kjy; tpz;fyj;Jf;F ,tuJ ngaNu #l;lg;gl;lJ mtuJ GfOf;F ey;y vLj;Jf;fhl;L.   ,tH Mupag;gl;bak; vd;w Ehiy jdJ 23tJ mfitapy; vOjpdhH. ,e;j Ehy; 13Mk; Ehw;whz;by; ,yj;jpd; nkhopapy; nkhop ngaHf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

Mupag;gl;lH rpWtajpNyNa Gfo; ngw;w ehye;jh gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; NrHe;J thdpay; gbj;jtH MthH. gpd;dH mNj gy;fiyf; fofj;Jf;F Jiz Nte;juhf Gj;jFg;j vd;w kd;ddhy; epakdk; nra;ag;gl;lhH.

 

,e;j Ehypy;  cUis thdpay; (spherical astronomy ) gw;wp Kjd; Kjypy; Mupagl;lH vOjpdhH. G+kp cUis tbthdJ vd;whH. NkYk; Nfhs;fspd; ,Uf;if gw;wpAk; mtw;wpd; Jhuk; gw;wpAk; vOjpdhH. #upa re;jpu fpufzq;fs; vg;gb Vw;gLfpwJ vd;gij tiuglk; %yk; tpsf;fpdhH.  re;jpu #upa fpufzq;fSf;Ff; fhuzk; ,uhF NfJ vd;w ghk;Gfs; my;y re;jpud; kw;Wk; G+kpapd; epoy; vd tpsf;fpdhH. ,e;j tpsf;fk; Ntjj;Jf;F khwhf ,Ug;gjhr; nrhy;yp  ,e;Jkjthjpfs; mtUf;F vjpuhfg; NghHf; nfhb Jhf;fpdH.Astrologyaryabattar42.jpg (22842 bytes)

 

re;jpuDk; Nfhs;fSk; #upa xspia thq;fp vwpfpd;wd (reflect) vd Mupag;gl;lH  nrhd;dhH. G+kp jdJ mr;rpy; Roy;fpwJ vd;Wk; re;jpud; G+kpia tyk; tUfpd;wJ vd;Wk; vOjpdhH. G+kp Qhapiwr; Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; el;rj;jpu Mz;L  (Sidereal) 23 kzp 56 kzpj;Jsp 4.1 nehb vdf; fzf;fpl;lhH. ,d;iwa rupahd  el;rj;jpu Mz;L 23 kzp 56 kzpj;Jsp 1.091 nehbahFk;. Mdhy; G+kpikaf; Nfhl;ghNl ,tuJ Nfhl;ghlhfTk; ,Ue;jjhj; njupfpwJ.

 

,tH igapd; ngWkjpia 3.1416 vdf; fzpj;jhH. mNj rkak; mJ mz;zsthd fzpg;G vd;Wk; nrhd;dhH. NkYk; Kf;Nfhz ml;ltizfs;> Kf;Nfhzq;fspd; gug;gsT> rkd;ghLfs; gw;wpAk; vOjpdhH.  

 

GWhfj; rk;fpj kw;Wk; GWhjj; ahjf vd;w Ehy;fisAk; vOjpdhH. ,e;j Ehy;fs; el;rj;jpuf; $l;lq;fs; (constellations) jhtutpay;> tpyq;fpay;> epyEhy; gw;wpait MFk;.

 

tuhfkpfpuH (fpgp 505-587) Mupagl;lupd; rkfhyj;jtH MthH.  njd;dhrpa mwptpay; Jiwapy; kl;Lky;y fiyj;JiwapYk; rpwe;J tpsq;fpatH. c[;[apd; (Ujjain) vd;w efupy; gpwe;jtH. c[;[apd; xU fhyj;jpy; ,uh[;Gj;jhdhtpd; jiyefuhf tpsq;fpaJ. ,e;jg; gFjpapy; #upaid tzq;Fk; ghurPfj;jpdH tho;e;jhHfs;.  tuhf vd;why; gd;wp kpfpu vd;why; #upad; vd;W nghUs;.

,tH %d;W Ehy;fis vOjpdhH. vOjpa Ehy;fspy; gQ;r rpj;jhe;jk; vd;w Ehy; (fpgp 578) Gfo; ngw;wJ. ,e;j Ehy; Kd;dH ,Ue;j Ie;J thdpay; Ehy;fspd; njhFg;ghFk;.

(1) #upa rpj;jhe;jk;. vOjpatH ,yhlh.

(2) trpl;l rpj;jhe;jk;. ,J xU tpz;kPdpd; ngaH. vOjpatH tp\;Zre;jpuH

(3) cNuhkf rpj;jhe;jk;. cNuhk Nguurpd; ngaH. vOjpatH =N\fH.

(4) NghyPrh rpj;jhe;jk;. vOjpatH rape;jpu (mnyf;rhe;jhupah ) efupy; tho;e;j NghyPrh vd;w fpNuf;fH.

(5) gpuk;k rpj;jhe;jk;. vOjpatH gpukFg;jH. ,tH xU jpuhtplH.   

 

,tw;wpy; #uparpj;jhe;jk; mtUf;Fg; gpd;dH gyuhy; gyKiw jpUj;jp vOjg;gl;lJ. ,Ue;Jk; #uparpj;jhe;jk; gQ;rhq;f fzpg;gpw;F Kf;fpa Mjhu Ehyhf ,d;Wk; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

 

tuhfkpfpuH Nkw;Fyf thdpaiy Jiwawf; fw;wpUe;jhH. NkNy nrhy;yg;gl;l Ie;jpy; ,uz;L rpj;jhj;jq;fs; Nkw;Fyf thdpay;gw;wpaJ. ,e;j rpj;jhe;jq;fspy; tuhkpfpuH fpNuf;f thdpayhsH njhykpapd; fzf;fpay; tiuglq;fs; kw;Wk; ml;ltizfis KOjhfj; je;jpUf;fpwhH.

 

tuhkpfpuH ghurPfj;ij G+HtPfkhff; nfhz;bUe;jjhy; #upa rpj;jhe;jk; ghurPf thdpaiy mbg;gilahff; nfhz;bUe;jJ. #upa rpj;jhe;jj;Jf;F ,d;ndhU ngaH rTkhu rpe;jhe;jk;. ,jd; nghUs; #upaid tzq;FgHfsJ rpe;jhe;jk; vd;gjhFk;. ,JTk; mtH #upa topghLs;s ghurPfj;ij G+HtPfkhff; nfhz;ltH vd;gjw;Fr; rhd;whFk;.   

#uparpj;jhe;jk; re;jpudpd; tpl;lk; (diameter) 480 Nahridfs; vdTk; mjd; XLghijapd; Rw;wsT  324>000 Nahrid vdTk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. xU Nahrid 5 fw;fs; vdf; nfhz;L fzf;fpl;lhy; re;jpudpd; tpl;lk; 2>400 fw;fs; mjd; XLghij Rw;wsT 1>620>000 fw;fs; vd tUfpwJ. ,J ,d;iwa fzf;NfhL (re;jpudpd; tpl;lk; 2> 160 fw;fs; XLghijapd; Rw;wsT 1>495>000 fw;fs;) XusT xj;J ,Ug;gijf; fhzyhk;.  

 

gh];fur;rhupahH (1114-1183) Mupagl;lupd; EhYf;F tpupTiu vOjpdhH. ,tH rpj;jhe;j rpNuhz;kzp> yPyhtjp kw;Wk; gP[hfzpjk; vd %d;W Ehy;fis vOjpdhH> ,e;j Ehy;fs; cyf nkhopfs; gytw;wpy; nkhopngaHf;fg; gl;bUf;fpd;wd. ,jpy; rpj;jhe;j  rpNuhz;kzp vd;w thdpay; EhNy mtUf;Fg; Gfio <l;bf; nfhLj;jJ. Mupagl;lupd; tpjpia itj;J Nfhs;fspd; XLghijr; Rw;wsitf; fzpj;jhH.

 

#upa rpj;jhe;jj;jpw;F gh];furhupaH vOjpa tpupTiuapy; G+kp Qhapiwr; Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; ehs;fis xd;gJ gjpd;khdk; (jrkhdk;) tiu nfhLj;jpUf;fpwhH. 365.258756484 vd;gNj mtH nfhLj;j fhyf; fzpg;G. rupahd ehs;fs; 365.2596 MFk;.

,tH <Hg;G rf;jpia NrH Irf; epA+l;lDf;F 500 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dNu fz;b gpbj;jhH vdr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. 'nghUl;fs; G+kpia Nehf;fp mjd; ftHr;rpahy; tpOfpd;wd. Md fhuzj;jhy; Nfhs;fs;> el;rj;jpuf; $l;lq;fs;> re;jpud;> #upad; Kjypait ,e;j ftHr;rp fhuzkhf mjdjd; XLghijapy; gpbj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ("Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore the earth, the planets, constellations, moon and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction.?) ,tH md;iwa fd;dl ehl;ilr; NrHe;jtH.  

,e;jpa thdpay; tsHr;rpf;F Nruehl;L mwptpayhsHfsJ gq;fspg;G Nghw;wj;jf;fjhf ,Uf;fpwJ. `upjj;jH vd;gtH fpufrudpge;jdk; kw;Wk; kfhkHfdpge;jdk; vd;w ,uz;L Ehy;fis vOjpdhH. ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; fuzk; vd;W miof;g;gLk; gy thdpay; Ehy;fs; vOjg;gl;ld. ,jpy; NjtrhupahH (12Mk; Ehw;whz;L) vOjpa  fuzeuj;d vd;w Ehy; QhapW> epyh> Nfhs;fs;> ePs;tl;lk;> Nfhs;fs; xd;WNrHjy; (conjunctions) gw;wp tpsf;FfpwJ.   

 

xd;W njhlf;fk; Rop tiuahd vz;fSf;Fg; gpwF gjpd;khd (jrkhd) Kiw fpgp 4Mk; Ehw;whz;by; Njhd;wptpl;lJ. F[uhj;jpy; fz;nlLf;fg;gl;l (fpgp 585-586) rq;Nfj nrg;Ngl;by; Kjd; Kjyhf Rop gad;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;sJ.

 

gpukGj;jH (7Mk; Ehw;whz;L) jdJ gpukGj;j rpj;jhe;jk; vd;w Ehypy; Ropia tpsf;fp ,Uf;fpwhH. ,e;j Ehy; muG nkhopapy; fpgp 770,y; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

,tNu g+kpapd; Rw;wsit 5>000 Nahrid Jhuk; vdf; fzf;fpl;lhH. xU Nahrid 7.2 fpkP fzf;Fg;gb G+kpapd; Rw;wsT 36>000 fpkP JhukhFk;. Mdhy; rupahd msT 40>046 fpkP (24>889 fw;fs;) MFk;.

Rop fz;L gpbf;fg; glhjpUe;jpUe;jhy; ,ul;il vz;Kiw (binary) Njhd;w tha;g;gpy;yhJ NghapUf;Fk;. gpuhkp vz;fis muhgpaHfs; ,e;jpaHfsplk; ,Ue;J fld; thq;fp Nkw;Fyf ehLfSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhHfs;.  gpukFg;jh vd;gtH vOjpa  gpuk#j;jpu rpj;jhe;jk; kw;Wk; fhz;lfbif 9-10Mk; Ehw;whz;by; muhgp nkhopapy; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;ld. Rop  kw;Wk; gjpd;khdk; fz;L gpbj;jjw;F ,e;jpa thdpayhHfis epr;rak; ghuhl;lyhk;.

 

xd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;by; muG ehl;ltuhd my; Fthuprpkp ,e;jpa vz;Kiw gw;wp xU Ehy; vOjpdhH. ,e;j Ehy; 12Mk; Ehw;whz;by; ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lJ. (tsUk;)  

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L

,e;jpa thdpay; tuyhW    

(41)

ef;fPud;

,e;jf; fpoik Nrhjplg; Gul;Lf;F gypahd xU FLk;gj;jpd; Nrhff; fij 'jpdfud;'(jkpo;ehL) rdtup 27 ,jopy; ntspte;Js;sJ.

 

Nkl;^u; mUNf ngw;W jhyhl;b rPuhl;b tsHj;j 3 Foe;ijfis fapw;why; ,Wf;fp nfhiy nra;J tpl;L jhq;fSk; eQ;R Fbj;jdH. ,e;j nfhiyf;Ff; fhuzk; tWik> fld; njhy;iy> jPuhj Neha; vd;Wjhd; ahUk; epidg;ghHfs;. Mdhy; nfhiyf;Ff; fhuzk; ,itay;y.

 

Nryk; khtl;lk; Nkl;^iu mLj;j GJr;rhk;gs;sp mUNf cs;sJ Nfhk;g+uhd;fhL. ,e;j  Ciur; Nru;e;jtu; <];tud; (taJ 30). mtH xU $ypj; njhopyhsp. ,tuJ kidtp ngaH tp[ah (taJ26). ,tu;fSf;F jpt;ah (taJ 6) jPgpfh (taJ4) vd;w 2 ngz;gps;isfSk;> jpNd\; Fkhu; (taJ2) vd;w xU kfDk; cs;sdu;.  

 

cly;eyf; Fiwthf ,Ue;j jpNd\;Fkhiu ngw;NwhHfs; mur kUj;Jt kidf;F nfhz;L nrd;W fhl;bdhHfs;. jpNd\;Fkhiu gupNrhjpj;j kUj;JtHfs; mtdJ ,jaj;jpy; Xl;il ,Ug;gjhff; $wpdhHfs;. kUj;JtHfis ek;ghj ngw;NwhHfs;  Nrhjpluplk; nrd;W kfdpd; rhjfj;ijf; fhl;bg; gyd;  Nfl;lhHfs;. rhjfj;ijg; gbj;j Nrhjpld;  ,d;Dk; 15 ehspy; jpNd\;Fkhu; capUf;F Mgj;J NeupLk; vd;W nrhd;dhd;.    

 

,jdhy; fztd; kidtp ,UtUk; kdk; cile;jdu;. jq;fSf;F ,Uf;Fk;   xNu kfd; ,we;J NghthNdh vd epidj;J kd Ntjid mile;jdu;. kfid ,oe;J gp;d;dH capNuhL ,Uf;f$lhJ vd epidj;j ,UtUk; FLk;gj;Jld; jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhs;s KbT nra;jhHfs;.

 

,e;epiyapy; New;W mjpfhiy <];tud; tPL g+l;bf;fple;jJ. Foe;ijfspd; rj;jKk; Nfl;ftpy;iy ,jdhy; mf;fk;gf;fj;jpdu; Iak;; mile;jdu;.

 

tPl;bw;Fs; ad;dy; Xukha; ghu;j;jNghJ <];tud;> tp[ah capUf;F Nghuhbf;nfhz;L ,Ue;jJ njupe;jJ. tPl;bd; jho; thuj;jpy; 3 Foe;ijfSk; ,we;J fple;jd. Mdhy; ghu;g;gjw;F J}q;fpf;nfhz;L ,Ug;gJNghy; njupe;jJ.

 

,JFwpj;J fUkiyf;$ly; fhty;Jiwf;F mf;fk; gf;fj;jpdu; jfty; njuptpj;jdu;. fhty;JiwapdH rk;gt ,lj;Jf;F tpiue;J te;jdu;. mq;F capUf;F Nghuhbf;nfhz;L ,Ue;j fztd;> kidtpia Nkl;^u; muR kUj;Jtkidapy; Nru;j;jdH.  

 

tprhuizapy; mtu;fs; g+r;rp kUe;J Fbj;Jtpl;lJ njupe;jJ.  jdJ kfd;  jpNd\;Fkhu; ,d;Dk; 15 ehspy; ,we;J tpLtjhf N[hrpau; $wpajhy; kdk; cile;J ,e;j jw;nfhiyf;F KbTf;F te;jjhfTk; 3 Foe;ijfisAk; fapwpdhy; ,Wf;fpf; nfhd;Wtpl;L ngw;NwhH  eQ;R Fbj;jhf $wg;gl;lJ.

 

'N[hjplk; vd;w %lek;gpf;if 3Foe;ijfspd capu; gwpNghff; fhuzkhf mike;Jtpl;lJ' vd;W jpdfud; ehNsl;bd; KftH nra;jpia epiwT nra;Js;shH.  Mdhy; ,Nj VL M&lk; (Nrhjplk;)  ,uhrp gyd; gw;wpa fl;Liufis gf;fk; gf;fkhf ehs;NjhWk; ntspapl;L %lek;gpf;iff;F ePH Cw;wp tsHj;J tUfpwJ!

 

ghku kf;fspd; mwpahikiaAk; gbj;jtHfsJ %lek;gpf;ifiaAk; Kjyhf itj;Jf; nfhz;Nl NrhjplHfs; njhopy; nra;fpwhHfs;. NrhjplH nrhy;ypaij cz;ik vd;W ek;gpajhy;jhd; me;jg; gbg;gwptpy;yhj ngw;NwhHfs; ,e;jf; nfhiyia nra;Js;shHfs;.

 

nrd;w rdtup 24 jpUtuq;fk; jpUkz muq;fpy; ge;jy; jPg;gw;wp vupe;J mjpy; kzkfd; FUuhrd; mtdJ ngw;NwhH cl;gl 59 NgH ,we;jhHfs;. kzkfs; n[a= gLfhak; mile;J  kUj;Jtkidapy; NrHf;fg;gl;lhH. 'fhrpahj;jpiu' rlq;F Kbe;J 'eYq;F' itf;Fk;NghNj ,e;j tpgj;J ele;jJ. rhjfk; ghHj;J> K$Hj;jk; ghHj;J Xkk; tsHj;J> NtjpaH Ntjke;jpuk; Koq;f ele;j jpUkzk;jhNd? gpd;dH Vd; ,e;j mdHj;jk; Neu Ntz;Lk;? mJ jiytpjp> fHktpid> flTs; tpl;l top  vd;why; gpd; Vd; rhjfk; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk;?

 

fle;j Mz;L bnrk;gH 26,y; ,uhd; ehl;bd; 2>000 Mz;L goik tha;e;j ghk; efupy; ,lk;ngw;w epyeLf;fj;jpy; 30>000 NgUf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l Mz; ngz; Foe;ijfs; 10 nehbf;Fs; epj;jpiuapy; nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfNs? mjw;Fk; Nfhs;fSf;Fk; el;rj;jpuq;fSf;Fk; njhlHG ,Uf;fpwjh? mtHfs; vy;NyhUk; xNu ehspy; xNu Neuj;jpy; gpwe;jtHfsh? xNu Neuj;jpy; rhtjw;F? mwpTilNahH rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHf;f  Ntz;Lk;.

 

nrd;w rpy fpoikfshf Nkw;Fyf> Fwpg;ghf ggpNyhdpah> fpNuf;fk;> cNuhk; Nghd;w ehLfspy; thdpaypd; Njhw;wk; tsHr;rpgw;wp vOjpapUe;Njd;. Nrhjplk; xU Gul;L vd;gij thdpay; %ye;jhd; vz;gpf;f KbAk;. fle;j 500 Mz;Lfspy; thdpay; mRu tsHr;rp fz;Ls;sJ. mjd; cr;r fl;l tsHr;rp Kjypy; epyhtpy; kdpjid ,wf;fp mq;fpUe;J nrt;tha;f;F mDg;gp itf;Fk; mnkupf;fhtpd; jpl;lk;. ,d;Dk; 11 Mz;Lfspy; ,e;j tpe;ij tpz;zpy; epfOk; vd;W Jzpe;J nrhy;yyhk;!

 

,e;jpa mwptpaiyg;gw;wp ntWk;tha; rg;GgtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. Nkw;Fyf fz;L gpbg;Gf;fs; vy;yhk; ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J nts;isf;fhud; jpUbf; nfhz;L Nghd Xiyr; Rtbfisg; gbj;Jf; fz;L gpbj;jitjhd;  vd ,tHfs; XahJ $wp tUfpwhHfs;.

 

nts;isf;fhud; tpkhdk; fz;Lgpbg;gjw;F gy;yhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ,uhtzdplk; Gl;gf tpkhdk; ,Ue;jJ. mjpy; xt;nthU ehSk;  fapykiy nrd;W rptid topgl;lhd;> ,uhkdplk; VTfiz ,Ue;jJ> jpUjuhl;bud; muz;kidapy; FUNrj;jpuj;jpy; ele;j rz;iliag; ghHf;f  njhiyf;fhl;rp ,Ue;jJ! ,g;gb Vfg;gl;l Gide;Jiufs;!

 

vfpg;J ehl;L gpukpl;lh? ,e;jpaHfs;jhd; mijg; Ngha;f; fl;batHfs; vd;fpwhHfs;. mq;Nf gpukpl; fl;batHfs; ,e;jpahtpy; Vd; xU gpukpl;ilahtJ  fl;ltpy;iy vd;W ahUk; mtHfsplk; jpUg;gpf; Nfl;ff; $lhJ.

 

,e;Jj;Jth MjuthsHfs; ,g;NghJ ,e;jpa tuyhw;iw jpupj;J vOJtjpy; Kk;kukhf <Lgl;L tUfpwhHfs;.

 

Mr;rhupah guj;thrH (fpK 800) gwf;Fk; njhopy; El;gj;ij (aviation technology) njhlf;fp itj;jtH. mtH 'ae;jpu rHthr' vd;w Ehiy vOjpapUf;fpwhH. mjpy; %d;W tpjkhf gwf;Fk; ae;jpuq;fisg; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. mit xU Nfhspy; ,Ue;J ,d;ndhU NfhSf;F gwf;ff; $ba ae;jpuq;fis kl;Lky;y xU mz;lj;jpy; ,Ue;J ,d;ndhU mz;lj;Jf;Fg; gwf;ff; $bad. kpd;rhuk; kw;Wk; #upa Mw;wy; Ntjfhyj;jpy; njupe;jpUe;jJ.

<Hg;G tpiria epA+l;lDf;F Kd;dNu  Ntj fhyj;jpy; fz;L gpbj;jhH.  miz fl;Lk; njhopy; El;gk;
fk;gpapy;yh njhopy; El;gk; rJuq;fk; vy;yhk; vg;NghNjh fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;Ltpl;ld.  

=Mr;rhupa RU\;lH (fpK 600)  xl;LWg;G mWit itj;jpaj;jpd; je;ij. mtUf;F fz;glyk; mfw;wy; kw;Wk; xl;Ljy; nra;aj;  njupe;jpUe;jJ.  

Mr;rhupahH \huf; (fpK600) kUj;Jtj;jp;d; je;ij. mtH vOjpa \huf; rk;fpj 100>000 %ypifr; nrbfs;gw;wpf; $WfpwJ. fgpy; Mr;rhupahH (fpK 3000) Nguz;lapaypd; je;ij. fhdl; Mr;rhupahH (fpK 300) mZ vLNfhspd; je;ij. 'vy;yhg; nghUl;fSk; mZf;fshy; Mdit. mit mZ %yf;$Wfshy; (molecules) xd;NwhL xd;W ,ize;Js;sJ. up\p ehfHr;Rdh  (fpK 100) Ntj;jpaypy; tpw;gduhf ,Ue;jhH.

nfhyk;gRf;F Kd;dNu ,e;jpaH mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbj;jdH. igj;jhf;fpwh]; #j;jpuk; fz;L gpbf;f Kd;dH rpw;g rhj;jpuEhypy; mJ vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. rk];fpUj nkhopNa kw;w vy;yh nkhopfspdJ %ykhFk;. rk];fpUj nkhopNa fzdpf;F cfe;j nkhopahFk;.

Nkw;fz;lthW xU ,e;Jj;Jthjp vOjpapUf;fpwhH.

Kf;fhYk; czHe;j KdptHfs;> $Ltpl;Lf; $LghAk; rpj;jHfs;> ffd Fspifia tpOq;fptpl;L thdj;jpy; gwf;Fk; Nahfpfs; ,tHfSf;Fk; me;j ehl;by; gQ;rkpy;iy. ,d;W $l Ntnwe;j ehl;ilAk; tpl ,e;jpahtpy;jhd; kdpjf;flTsH gyH  ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. rhapghthTf;Fg; Nghl;bahf Nfusj;jpy; xU ngz;rhkpahH ,yl;rf;fzf;fhd gf;jHfs; Gil#o ,e;jpahit tyk; tUfpwhH. rhjhuz kf;fs; my;y ehlhs;NthNu mtH fhypy; tpOe;J vOfpwhHfs;!   

 

,e;jpahit MSk; ,e;Jj;Jth mbg;gil thjpfs; ,e;jpa tuyhw;iwj; jpupj;J vOJk; gzpapy; Kk;kukhf <Lgl;Ls;shHfs;. MupaHfs; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; ,Ue;J te;jtHfs; my;y mtHfs; ,e;jpa ehl;bd; G+HtPf Fbfs; vd;fpwhHfs;> `ug;gh-nkhn`Q;rjhNuh ehfupfk; my;y mJ ru];tjp-nkhn`Q;rjhNuh ehfupfk; vd;fpwhHfs;. nrj;jnkhopahd  rk];fpUjk; cr;rpNky; itj;Jf; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ. mNj Neuk; jkpior; nrk;nkhopahf mwptpf;FkhW jkpo; rhd;NwhHfshYk; jkpof murhYk; tpLf;fg;gl;l Ntz;LNfhs; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

MupaHfspd; tUiff;F Kd;dNu ,e;jpa cgfz;lj;jpy; ehfupfk; tsHr;rp mile;jpUe;jJ. ,e;jpahtpd; tuyhW vd;gJ ,e;J kjj;jpd; tuyhW vd;Wk;> ,e;jpa ehfupfk; ,e;J ehfupfk; vd;gJk; cz;ikf;F khwhdJ. ,e;J kjk; gpw;fhyj;jpy; Njhd;wpaJ. ,e;J kjk; ,e;jpahtpd; xNu kjk; my;y. ,e;jpahtpy; Njhd;wpa gy kjq;fspy; ,e;J kjKk; xd;W.  

 

rkzk; gTj;jk; cNyhfhAjk; ,e;jpa ehl;bd; ehfupf> rKjha>  jj;Jt rpe;jid tsHr;rpapy;  ngUk;gq;F Mw;wpAs;sd.   

 

MupaHfs; jq;fs; vjpupfis mopf;f> gazk; ntw;wp ngw> czT kJghdk; Nghd;wtw;iw toq;f ,e;jpud;> mf;dp> Nrhkd;> tUzd; Nghd;w nja;tq;fis Ntz;b ghlg;ngw;w ghly;fNs upf; NtjkhFk;.   

 

Ntj fzpjk; vd;gJ fpNuf;f fzpjtpaYf;F ciwNghlTk; fhzhJ. mJ fzpjk; my;y. rpy $l;ly; ngUf;fy;fis RUf;fkhfTk; tpiuthfTk; nra;a topfhl;LtNj Ntj fzpjk; MFk;.

 

Mupaupd; thdpay;gw;wpa mf;fiw rkaj;jpd; tpupthf mjNdhL ,ioNahb ,Ue;jJ.  Ntjfhyj;jpy; rlq;FfSf;Fk; Nts;tpf;Fk; fhyf; fzpg;G Njitahf ,Ue;jJ. NkYk; gapHr; nra;iff;Fk; kio fhyj;ijf; fzpf;f Ntz;ba fl;lhak; ,Ue;jJ.

 

Ntjfhy MupaH #upad;> el;rj;jpuq;fs; kw;Wk; Nfhs;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw nja;tq;fshf vz;zp topgl;ldH. ,it kdpjHfspd; ed;ik jPikia epHzapf;fpd;wd vd vz;zpdhHfs;. tpahod; kw;Wk; nrt;tha; ght fpufq;fshff; fUjg;gl;ld.  rhjfk; n[d;kFz;lyp vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. mjid fzpf;Fk; NghJ et Nfhs;fspd; ,Uf;if fzf;fpy; vLf;fg;gl;ld.

 

,e;jpa thdpay; fhNfhy rhj;jpuk; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. Ntj fzpjapayhsHfs; jq;fis thdpayhsHfshfNt ghHj;jdH.

 

mjdhy; fzpjapay; thdpaYf;F NrbahfNt ,Ue;J te;jJ. khwhf fpNuf;f fzpjapay; Rje;jpukhf ,aq;fpaJ. vdNt mJ xU jdpf; fiyahf tsHe;jJ.  Ntj fzpjapay; ngUk;ghYk; mDgtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; ,aq;fpaJ. vz;gpj;jy; my;yJ %yj;jpy; ,Ue;J tUtpg;G (proofs or derivations )  kpf mupjhfNt nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. fpNuf;f fzf;fpay; ,k;kpAk; gprfhj rhd;Nwhlhd tpsf;fj;ij typAWj;jpaJ.  ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapyhd Ntw;Wik ,d;Wk; epyf;fzf;fpaYf;Fk; ,aw;fzpjj;Jf;Fk; (Algebra)  ,ilapyhd Ntw;Wik cUtpy; ,d;Wk; ePbf;fpwJ. fzf;fpay; Ehy;fs;  tpjpj (Deductive )

KiwahdJ. ,aw;fzpjk; tpjpfspd; NrHf;ifahdJ.  thdj;jpy; ghHj;j fhl;rpg; nghUl;fSf;F kUl;rpahd nghUs; tpsf;fk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. thdpay; njhlHghd juTfs; ehy;Ntjk;> rpj;jhe;jk>; kw;Wk; rkz gTj;j ,yf;fpaq;fpfspy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.  ,Uf;F kw;Wk; mjHt Ntj ghly;fspy; re;jpu Mz;ilg; gw;wpa Fwpg;Gf;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. xU re;jpu Mz;L 12 khjq;fs;  360 re;jpu ehl;fisf; (  sidereal days) nfhz;bUe;jJ.

 

rlq;F topghl;Lf;F xU ehs; 3> 4> 5 my;yJ 15 rkgpupTfshfg; gFg;gl;bUe;jJ. mtw;Wf;F ntt;NtW ngaHfs; nfhLf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. fhHj;jpif njhlq;fp guzp <whf 27 el;rj;jpuq;fs; Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. Nfhs;fisg; nghWj;jstpy; Ntjq;fs;  5 Nfhs;fis Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. Mdhy; tpahod; (gpuf];gjp) nts;sp (Rf;fpud;) ,uz;LNk ngaH nrhy;ypf; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.                                  

 

rkz kj jj;Jtq;fs; gw;wp 45f;Fk; mjpfkhd Ehy;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. rlq;Ffs;> Guhzq;fs; kw;Wk; rka jj;Jtq;fs;gw;wp nrhy;git mq;fq;fs;  vd miof;fg;gLk;. ,t;thW 12 mq;fq;fs;  ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,jpy; ];jhdq;fh kw;Wk; gftjp#j;jpuk; vd;w ,uz;Lk; thdapay; fzpjtpay;gw;wpa Ehy;fs; MFk;. ,NjNghy; 12 cg mq;fq;fs;  ,Uf;fpd;wd. mitAk; thdpay;  gw;wpatitahFk;.  gpw;fhyj;jpy; (fpgp ,uz;lhk; Ehw;whz;L) NkYk; rpy Ehy;fs; thdpay;gw;wp vOjg;gl;ld.  

 

kfhNkU kiy G+kpapd; ika mr;rhff; fUjg;gl;lJ. G+kp mirtw;w rlg; nghUshf vz;zg;gl;lJ. ,it ,uz;NlhL ,uhrpfs;> Nfhs;fs;> fz;lq;fs;> MWfs;> fly;fs; kw;Wk; kiyfs; mlq;fpa njhFg;G [k;GJtPg vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. rkz Ehy;fs; 12 jpq;fs;fs;> Nfhs;fspd; Rw;W tl;lq;fs; kw;Wk; #upa re;jpu mirTfs;gw;wp tpgupf;fpd;wd. JUt el;rj;jpuk; (Polar Star)  NkU kiyf;F NeH NkNy ,Ug;gjhff; fhl;lg;gl;lJ. (tsUk;)