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fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

(""Kof;fk;"" fpoik Vl;by; ntspahfpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; njhlH 1-10)

 xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!  

fpA+gh Nehf;fp

  (1)

(ef;fPud;)

 

xt;nthU KiwAk; tpkhdj;jpy; Vwp cl;fhHe;jTld; gpy epidTfs; vd;  kdj;jpiuapy; XLk;. xd;W ,e;j ,uhl;rj tpkhdk; vg;gb Ie;EhW  gazpfisAk; Rke;J nfhz;L  tpz;zpy; fpsk;gpg; gwf;fg; NghfpwJ?

 

iul; rNfhjuHfs; ,e;j tpkhdj;ijf; fz;L gpbj;J ,d;Dk;; EhW Mz;Lfs; Mftpy;iy. mjw;fpilapy; tpkhdj; jahupg;gpy;jhd; vt;tsT Kd;Ndw;wk;? xypia tpQ;rpd  Ntfj;jpy; my;yth ,d;W tpkhdq;fs; fz;lk; tpl;Lf; fz;lk;  gwf;fpd;wd?

1903k; Mz;L khHfop khjk; MHtpy; iul;>tpy;gH iul; vd;w rNfhjuHfs; Kjd; Kjyhf152,whj;jy; vilAk;> 12 Fjpiu rf;jpAk; tha;e;;j xU ngl;Nuhy; vd;[pidj; jahupj;jhHfs;. gpd; tpkhdj;ij tbtikj;jhHfs;. tpkhdj;Jf;F ,uz;L ,wf;iffisg;nghUj;jpdhHfs;. mtw;wpd; ePsk; 40 mb. tpkhdj;jpd; Kd;gFjpapy; caHj;jpr; Rf;fhd;(Elevator rudder) mikj;jhHfs;. thy;gFjpapy; efuf;$ba ,U fhw;whbfs; mike;j Rf;fhd; xd;Wk; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,U ,wf;iffs; xd;wd; Nky; xd;whf MW mb ,ilntspapy; itf;fg;gl;lJ. fPo; ,wf;ifapd; ikaj;jpw;Fr; rd;W tyg;gf;fj;jpy; vQ;rpd; nghUj;jg;gl;lJ.

              fhiyg;nghOJ

 

tpkhdj;ijr; ruprk epiyapy; itj;jpUg;gjw;fhf> ikaj;jpd;   ,lg;gf;fj;jpy;  tpkhdp Fg;Gwg;  gLj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd KbT nra;ag;gl;lJ. fg;gypd; jpUFfisg;  Nghd;W  tpkhdj;ij Kd;Ndhf;fpj; js;Sfpd;w tiuapy; ,U nrYj;jpfs; ,izf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

iul; rNfhjuHfs; ,g;NghJjhd; tpkhdj;jpy; gwf;f Kaw;rp nra;jhHfs; vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ. ,jw;F Kd;dH rWf;F tpkhdq;fis (gliders) tl fNwhypdh khepyj;jpYs;s fpl;b`hf; flw;fiuapy; rWf;ftpl;L  Nrhjid  nra;jpUe;jhHfs;. ,g;NghJk; mNj ,lj;ij ,e;j Gjpa tpkhdj;ij gwf;ftpLk; Nrhjidf;Fk; NjHe;njLj;jhHfs;.  ,tHfspd; Kjy; Kaw;rp Njhy;tp mile;jJ. tpkhdk; rpwpJ  Nrjkile;jJ.Mdhy; iul; rNfhjuHfs; risf;ftpy;iy.  Njhy;tpjhNd ntw;wpapd; Kjw; gbf; fw;fs;?

 

Nrjk; mile;j tpkhdk; gOJ ghHf;fg;gl;lJ. 1903 khHfop khjk; 17k; ehs;. fhiy Neuk;. kzpf;F 24 Kjy; 27 iky; Ntfj;jpy; FspH fhw;W tPrpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ.

 

Kjd; Kjypy; kdpjd; tpkhdj;jpy; gwf;Fk; fhl;rpiaf; fz;L fspf;f Ie;J NgHjhd; - ehd;F Ml;fs;> xU rpWtd; - mq;F $bapUe;jhHfs;!

 

kdpj tuyhw;wpy; xU iky; fy;yhff; fUjg;gl;l md;iwa fhiyapy; MHtpy; iul; jd;Dila tpkhdj;jpy; VwpdhH. mjpy; Fg;Gwg;gLj;Jf;  nfhz;L tpkhdj;ijr; nrYj;Jk; rhjdj;ijf; ifapy; gpbj;jhH.  ,ae;jpuk; ,af;fp tplg;gl;L #lhtjw;F rpy epkpl Neuk; Xltplg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH fpsk;Gtjw;Fupa jz;lthsj;Jld; tpkhdj;ij ,izj;jpUe;j   fk;gpia MHtpy; mtpo;j;J tpl;lhH.

 

tpkhdk; Kd;Ndhf;fpg; gha;e;J fhw;wpy; gwf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ! tpkhdj;ijj; jz;lthsj;jpd; kPNj  rpwpJ XLk;gb nra;tjw;fhf tpy;gH iul; tpkhdj;jpd; ,wf;ifiag; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L rpy tpehbfs; mjDld; XbdhH. jz;lthsj;jpd;  kPJ 40 mb Jhuk; rWf;fpr; nrd;w gpwF> tpkhdk; caNu fpsk;gpaJ. Mdhy; mJ xNu epiyapy; gwf;ftpy;iy. xU rkak; fhw;W me;j tpkhdj;ij NkNy caHj;jpaJ.  kw;nwhU rkak; fhw;W fPo;Nehf;fp mjid mOj;jpaJ. Mfhaj;jpy; fpsk;gpa ,lj;jpypUe;J 120 mb Jhuk; 12 tpdhb fhw;wpy; gwe;J tpl;L tpkhdk; gj;jpukhfj; jiuapwq;fpaJ!

 

,e;j tpkhdk; gwg;gijg; ghHj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j me;j ItUk; tuyhw;wpy; vj;Jiz Gul;rpfukhd  epfo;r;rpiag; ghHj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk; vd;gij czHe;J nfhs;stpy;iy!

 

Mdhy; ,e;jr;  rhjidiaAk; ahUk;  fz;Lnfhs;stpy;iy. cs;@H  nra;jpj;jhs;   xd;W  kl;Lk;  xU rpd;dr; nra;jpia ntspapl;lJ. xU khjj;jpw;Fg; gpd;dH ""epA+NahHf; nfuhy;l;"" (New York Herald) vd;w nra;jpj;jhs; ""gwf;Fk; ,ae;jpuk;"" (Flying Machine) vd;w jiyg;gpy; xU nra;jpia ntspapl;lJ. mJTk; jg;Gk; jtWjYkhf  me;jr;  nra;jp ,Ue;jJ.

 

Kaw;rp cilahH ,fo;rpailahH vd;W jkpo;kfs; mt;it nrhd;djw;F Vw;g iul;  rNfhjuHfs;  NkYk; NkYk; Nrhjid nra;jhHfs;. vLj;j  fUkj;jpy; fz;zhf ,Ue;jhHfs;.  ,Wjpaahf elhj;jpa Nrhjidapy; tpy;gH iul; tpkhdj;jpy;  gwe;jhH.  mg;NghJ me;j  tpkhdk; kzpf;F 30 iky; Ntfj;jpy; 59 tpdhbfspy; 852 mb Jhuk;tiu gwe;jJ.

 

Ie;J Mz;Lfs; fopj;J th\pq;ld; efupd; mUfpYs;s NghHl;ikaH vd;w ,lj;jpy; kw;nwhU tpkhdj;ij iul; rNfhjuHfs; gwf;ftpl;Lf; fhl;bdhHfs;.  mijf; fz;l nra;jpahsHfs;> nghJkf;fs; kfpo;r;rp kpFjpahy; Mde;jf; fz;zPH nrhupe;jhHfs;.

 

iul; rNfhjuHfsJ Kaw;rpf;F Kd;dNu Mfhaj;jpy; gwf;Fk;vj;jdj;jpy; %d;W Ehw;whz;L fhykhfg; gyH Kaw;rp nra;J te;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

 

Gfo;ngw;w Xtpauhd ypNahdhHNlh lh tpd;rp (Leonardo da Vinci) gwf;Fk; nghwpapd; khjpup tiuglk; xd;iw tiue;jpUe;jhH. ""gwitfs;  Vd; gwf;fpd;wd? vg;gbg; gwf;fpd;wd?"" vd;w Nfs;tpfSf;F mtH tpilfhz Kad;W gw;gy tiuglq;fis> ,wf;ifnfhz;l ,ae;jpuq;fspd; cUtq;fis cUthf;fpdhH.

 

gwitfs; Nghy; ,wf;if fl;bg; gwf;f Kide;J Njhy;tp  fz;ltHfs; gyH.  capH tpl;ltHrpyH. gYhdpy; gwe;J capHtpl;ltHfSk; ,Ue;jhHfs;.

 

iul; rNfhjuHfspd; Kd;Ndhbfs;gw;wp vOjpdhy; mJNt jdpf; fl;Liuahfp tpLk;. kdpjtuyhw;wpy; Mfha tpkhdk; xU mupa rhjid. GJik.

 

mjw;F mLj;jjhf kdpjid epyhtpy; ,wf;fp mwptpay; rhjid gilj;jijf; Fwpg;gplyhk;.""gpj;jhg;gpiw #b ngUkhNd mUshsh"" vd;W gf;jpNahL ehk; Njthuk; ghbf;  nfhz;bUf;f mnkupf;f  mwptpayhsHfs; me;j kjpapNyNa kdpjidf; nfhz;LNgha; ,wf;fp kPz;Lk; mtidg; G+kpapy; nfhz;L te;jhHfs;. 1969k; Mz;L A+iy 5k; ehs; elhj;jg;gl;l mg;NghNyh 11 tpz;ntspg; gaze;jhd; me;jr; rhjidia nra;jJ.

 

me;jg; gazj;ijAk;> epyhtpy; mk;];Nuhq; Kjy; mb vLj;J itj;j fhl;rpiaAk;  njhiyf;fhl;rpapy; tpba tpbaf; fhl;bdhHfs;. nfhOk;gpy; my;y. ,yz;ldpy;. me;j ,uT vd;idg;nghWj;j kl;by; rptuhj;jpup! (tsUk;)

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

 xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

"",uhtzdplk; ,y;yhj G\;gf tpkhdkh?""

(2)

 

(ef;fPud;)

 

,uz;L thuq;fSf;F Kd;dH epyTf;F mDg;gp itj;j mg;NghNyh 11 fl;lis  miwapy;  mkHe;J mNj tpz;ntspf; fhl;rpiag; ghHf;Fk; tha;g;Gf; fpilj;jJ. mnkupf;fhtpYs;s  GNshuplh khepyj;jpy; fl;lg;gl;Ls;s nfd;db tpz;ntsp ikaj;jpy; me;j  mg;NghNyh 11  fl;lis miwia mg;gbNa fhl;rpf;F itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. ,e;j nfd;db ikaj;ijg;gw;wp gpd;dH  tpupthf vOj ,Uf;fpNwd;.   

 

 "",e;j tpkhdk; vd;d ngupa mjprak;? vq;fsJ ,uhtzdplKk; G\;gf tpkhdk; ,Ue;jJjhNd! mjpy;jhNd ,uhtzd;  xt;nthUehSk; ifyak;fpup nrd;W rptidj; juprdk; nra;J  tpl;L  te;jhd;! ,uhtzd; rPijia Jhf;fp ,e;j G\;gf tpkhdj;jpy; itj;Jj;jhNd flj;jp te;jhd;! fk;gH mij  vg;gb tpgupj;jpUf;fpwhH njupAkh? nfhQ;r Jhuk; G\;gf tpkhdk; Xba rf;fuq;fspd; milahsk; epyj;jpy; ,uhkDf;F njupAk;gb ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; nfhQ;r Jhuj;Jf;F mg;ghy; rf;fuj;jpd; milahsk; ,Uf;fNt ,y;iy. ,J G\;gf tpkhdk; nfhQ;r Jhuk;  XL ghijapy; Xb gpd; NkNy fpsk;gpaijf; fhl;LfpwJ"" vd;W fk;gjhrHfSk;> fk;gthupfSk; vj;jid Nkilfspy; ,g;gTk; Kof;fp tUfpwhHfs;?

 

,uhtzd; fhyj;jpy; G\;gftpkhdk; ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; mJ kuf;fl;ilapy; nra;jjhfj;jhd;  ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. Vndd;why; cNyhfq;fs; fz;Lgpbf;fhj fhyk; mJ. tpkhdk; G+kpapd; <Hg;Gr; rf;jpia kPwp tpz;zpy; gwf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; tpkhd ,af;ftpay; (Aero- Dynamics) vd;W nrhy;fpNwhNk me;j mwptpay; njupe;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;!

 

tpkhdk; gwf;Fk; NghJ ehd;F tpirfs; mjd;kPJ nray;gLfpd;wd. KjyhtJ NkNyw;W tpir (Lift), tPRk; fhw;wpd; Nky; Nehf;fpa tpirahdJ>  tpkhdj;jpDila ,wf;ifapd; mbg;gFjpapy; jhf;fp tpkhdj;ij NkNy fpsg;GfpwJ. ,uz;lhtJ ,Oit tpir ( Drag) my;yJ  gpd;Nehf;fpa ,Og;G.  ,J fhw;wpd; jilapdhy; Vw;gLfpwJ. %d;whtJ vil (Weight) ,J tpkhdj;ij fPo;Nehf;fp ,Of;Fk; Gtp<Hg;gpdhy; (gravity) cz;lhfpwJ. ehd;fhtJ js;Stpir (Thrust). ,J tpkhdj;ij Kd;Ndhf;fp ,Of;fpwJ. Kd;nrYj;jp  (Propeller) my;yJ jhiu (Jet)    ,jidr; nra;fpwJ.

,e;j mwptpay; njupahtpl;lhy; thdj;jpy; gwf;Fk; tpkhdj;ij cUthf;f KbahJ. "",y;iy. ,y;iy. ,itnay;yhk; me;jf; fhyj;jpy ; ,Ue;jJ. gpd;dhy; vy;yhk; mope;J Nghapd"" vd;W nrhy;YfpwtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;! mope;J Nghfhky; vQ;rp ,Ue;jtw;iw nts;isf;fhud; fsthbf; nfhz;LNgha; mtw;iwg; gbj;J ,d;iwa mwptpay; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fis vy;yhk; fz;Lgpbj;jhd; vd;W nfhQ;rk;$l ntl;fk; ,y;yhky; nrhy;ypf; nfhs;gtHfs; ,d;Dk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. ,tHfs; gpwuJ #l;by; FspH fha;gtHfs;.

 

                     fpA+gh-thdj;jpy; ,Ue;J

 

 

rup. ,tw;iwnay;yhk;  xU jiltpilf;F cz;ik vd;Nw xj;Jf;  nfhs;Nthk;. "",uhtzd; fhyj;jpYk; mwptpay; nfhbfl;bg; gwe;jJ. gpw;fhyj;jpy; gpusak;>  flw;Nfhs;  fhuzkhf mitnay;yhk; mope;J Nghapd"" vd;w thjj;ij xj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. mg;gbnad;why;me;jf; fhyj;jpy; njhiyNgrp> thndhyp> njhiyf; fhl;rpAk; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. Vndd;why; mwptpay; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fs; xd;Wf;nfhd;W njhlHGilait. xd;iwf; fz;Lgpbj;jjpdhy;jhd; Ntnwhd;iwf; fz;L gpbj;jhHfs;.  kpd;rhuj;ij Kjypy;  fz;L  gpbj;jjpdhy;jhd;  njhiyf;fhl;rp. jpiug;glk;> thndhyp rhj;jpakhapw;W.

 

jz;lfhuz;a  tdj;jpNy rPijiaf; fhztpy;iy vd;wTld; ,uhkd; vd;d nra;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;? mJTk; G\;gf tpkhdj;jpy; ,uhtzd; flj;jpg; Ngha;tpl;lhd; vd;W mDkhdpj;jTld; vd;d nra;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;? nry; njhiyNgrpapy; ,uhtzdidNah mtdJmikr;riuNah $g;gpl;L rPij vq;Nf ,Uf;fpwhs;? mts;  ct;tplk; (,yq;if) ,Uf;fpwhsh vd;W $g;gpl;Lf; fijj;jpUf;fyhk; my;yth?  

 

Mdhy; mg;gb xd;Wk; ele;jjhf thy;kPfpNah fk;gNdh ,uhkhazj;jpy; ghltpy;iy. khwhf fd;dj;jpy; ifitj;J kidtpia ,oe;j Nrhfj;jpy; xg;ghup itf;Fk; ,uhkidj;jhd; ghb ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.  ,uhkd; fliyf; flf;f thduq;fspd; cjtpNahL xU ghyk; mikj;J ,yq;if nrd;whd; vd;W fk;guhkhazk; nrhy;fpwJ.

 

,d;Dk; rpyH xU gb NkNy Ngha; me;jf; fhyj;jpy; G\;gf tpkhdk;Nghy; thndhyp> njhiyf;fhl;rp vy;yhk; ,Ue;jJ vd;W nrhy;;fpwhHfs;. ,g;gbr; nrhy;gtHfs; vq;fs; CHg; ghl;bkhH vd ePq;fs; KbT fl;lf;$Lk;.  ,y;iy  gbj;jtHfs;> mwptpay; gl;ljhupfs; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. ghujg; Nghupy; FUNrj;jpu G+kpapy; elg;gtw;iw fz;njupahj   jpUjuhl;bdDf;F   rQ;rad; jdJ Qhdf; fz;zhy; ghHj;J nrhd;dhd;.  mjhtJ ,d;iwa fpwpf;fl; ge;jhl;lj;jpy; njhlH tHzid nfhLg;ghHfNs (running commentary)  mg;gbf; nfhLj;jhdhk;!

 

kdpjd; nfhQ;rk; ehfupfk; mile;j gpd;dH  kl;Lk; my;y mjw;F Kd;dUk; tpz;zpy; gwf;f Kaw;rp nra;J nra;J nfhz;Nl te;jpUf;fpwhd;. Fiwe;j gl;rk; fijfspYk;> ,jpfhrq;fspYk; fw;gid tpkhdq;fis  gwf;f  tpl;L jdJ kd Miriag; G+Hj;jp nra;J nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwhd;. thy;kPfp ,uhkhazj;jpy; tUk; G\;gf tpkhdk; mg;gbahd eakhd fw;gidNa jtpu  Ntnwhd;Wk;  ,y;iy. <rhg;Gf; fijfspy; tUk; gwf;Fk; fk;gsq;fs;> rKf;fhsq;fs;> NjHfis  ,Oj;Jr; nry;Yk; gwf;Fk; Fjpiufs; (#upad; VO Fjpiufs; G+l;ba Njupy; fhiyapy; fpof;fpy; vOe;J khiyapy; Nkw;fpy; kiwfpwhd; vd;W Guhzq;fs; GSfpd)> Ntjhsq;fs;> kha Nkfq;fs;  ,e;j G\;gf tpkhdj;ij xj;j fw;gidjhd;. Ik;ngUk; fhg;gpaq;fspy; xd;whd rpyg;gjpfhuk; fz;zfp NfhefH gpioj;j jd; fztdhd NfhtyNdhL NjtHfs; kyHkhup nga;a thdT+Hjpapy; Vwp thDyfk; nrd;whs; vd ,ak;GfpwJ. ,JTk; ,sq;Nfh mbfspd; fw;gidNa!  

 

muhgpa ,uTf; fijfspy; tUk; rpe;Jghj; vd;Dk; khYkp ahidiaf;$lj; Jhf;ff; $ba ,uhl;rjg; gwitnahd;wpy; Vwp thd; ntspapy; gazk; nra;jjhfr; nrhy;yg;gl;bUf;fpwJ. ghgpNyhdpa murp xU fOfpd; KJfpy; Vwpg;gwe;jjhf fij ,Uf;fpwJ. mjpf Jhuk; NghtNdd;. rhj;jdhupd; kzpNkfiyapy;>  kzpNkfiy kzpgy;ytk; vd;Dk; jPtpw;F Mfhatopahfg; gwe;J Nghdhs; vd vOjg;gl;bUf;fpwJ.

 

tpkhdj;jpy; gwf;f epidj;j kdpjd; Kjypy; jdJ clk;gpy; rpwf;if fl;b gwf;f Kaw;rpj;jhd;. gwitf;F ,wf;if ,Ug;gjdhy;jhNd  mjdhy;  gwf;f KbfpwJ? ,g;gb Kaw;rpnra;J vj;jidNah NgHfs; capiu tpl;bUf;fpwhHfs;!

 

"" kdpjd; gwf;f Ntz;Lnkd flTs; epidj;jpUe;jhy; mtDf;F ,wf;iffisf; nfhLj;jpUg;ghd; my;yth?"" vd;W gf;jpkhd;fs; Nfl;lhHfs;!"" (tsUk;)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

gwitiaf; fz;lhd; tpkhdk; gilj;jhd;!

(3)

 

(ef;fPud;)

 

Mjpfhy KjNy gwitfs; gwg;gij kdpjd; ftdpj;J te;jpUf;fpwhd;. gwitfs; Nghy;  jhDk; gwf;f Kad;whd;. ,Ue;Jk; Ie;J ,yl;rj;Jf;Fk; mjpfkhd ntt;NtW gwitfs; vg;gbg; gwf;fpwnjd;w cz;ik mtDf;Fg; GjpuhfNt ,Ue;jJ.

 

ftpQH fz;zjhrd; kdpjd;  ""gwitiaf; fz;lhd; tpkhdk; gilj;jhd;"" vd;W ghbapUf;fpwhH. cz;ikapy;  mwptpay;  fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ,e;jf; $w;W rupahdjy;y. ehq;fs; rpWtajpy; flw;fiuapy;> tay;ntspapy; gl;lk; tpl;Nlhk; my;yth? me;j gl;lk; fhw;wpy; gwf;Fk; #l;Rkj;ij itj;Jj;jhd; kdpjd; tpkhdj;ij ntw;wpfukhff; fz;L gpbj;jhd;.

 

me;jf; fhyj;jpy; xUtd; jhd; trpf;Fk; Cupy; ,Ue;J ,UgJ iky; njhiytpw;Fg; gazk; NghtJ  mUik. ngz; vLg;gnjd;whYk; cs;@upNyNa vLj;jhHfs;. ,jw;Ff; fhuzk;  mLj;j CH vd;why; xU ey;yJ nfl;ljw;F vspjhfg; Ngha;tu KbahjJ vd;gJjhd;. gj;J iky; Jhuj;ij khl;L tz;bapy; flf;f Fiwe;jJ 3 kzpj;jpahyq;fshtJNtz;Lk;.

 

,d;W epyik jiyfPohf khwptpl;lJ. fhyk;> ,lk; ,uz;Lk; RUq;fp tpl;lJ.  Kjypy;  kfpOe;J>  Ng&e;J>  njhlH tz;bfs;  kdpjHfis CHtpl;L Cuy;y efuk;tpl;L efuk; gazk; nra;a cjtpaJ. fg;gy;fs; ehL tpl;L ehL gazk; nra;a cjtpd.

 

tpkhdq;fs; ,d;Dk; gy gb NkNyNgha; kdpjHfs; fz;lk; tpl;L fz;lk; Nghf cjtpad. xyp Ntfj;jpYk; tpiuthfg; gwf;Fk; nfhd;Nfhl; gazpfs; tpkhdq;fs; cyfj;ijNa xU Cuhf;fptpl;lJ (Global Village). ehLfs; jq;fisr; Rw;wp vOg;gpa nghUshjhu Ntypfis ntl;b cyfg; nghUshjhuk; Eistjw;F (Globalalisation of economy )   ghij mikj;Jf; nfhLj;Js;sd. nfhf;f Nfhyh> kf;nlhdhy;];> ikf;Nwhnrht;w; Nghd;w gd;dhl;L epWtdq;fs; ,y;yhj ehNlh efuj;ijNah ,d;w ghHf;f KbahJ.

 

tpkhdq;fspy; gazpf;Fk; xUtH ,d;W fhiyr; rhg;ghl;il tPl;by; Kbj;Jf; nfhz;L nuhwd;Nuhtpy; tpkhdj;jpy; Vwpg; gwe;J nrd;W kj;jpahdr; rhg;ghl;bw;F  Nuhf;fpNah Ngha;r;NrHe;J tpLfpwhH. kPz;Lk; ,uTr; rhg;ghl;bw;F mT];jpNuypahtpd; rpl;dp efH Ngha;r; NrHe;J tpLfpwhH!

 

tpz;ntspg; gazk;  ,d;W  xU Gjpa  rfhg;jj;ij cUthf;fpAs;sJ. 1969k; Mz;L> A+iy 20k; ehs;jhd;  kdpjd;  Kjd;Kiwahf  epyhtpy; fhyb vLj;J itj;jhd;. me;j Kjybia vLj;J itj;j Mk;];Nwhq; vd;w tpz;ntsp tPuH "" ,J kdpjDf;F xU rpd;d vLj;jb Mdhy; kdpj Fyj;jpw;F ,uhl;rj vLj;jb"" ("This is a small step for Man but a Giant leap for mankind).

 

,e;j ,lj;jpy; ,e;j tpz;ntspg; gazj;jpd; Kjyb kpjptz;bf; fil itj;J elhj;jpa tpy;gH iul;>  MHtpy; iul; vd;w cld;gpwg;Gf;fshy; Muk;gpj;J itf;fg;gl;lJ vd;gij ,q;F epidT $WtJ ey;yJ. tpkhdg; gazk; ,y;yhtpl;lhy; tpz;ntspg;gazk; rhj;jpakhf ,Ue;jpUf;fhJ.   

 

,g;Nghnjy;yhk; epyhTf;fhd gazk;  rHt  rhjhuzkhfptpl;lJ. mLj;jjhf nrt;tha;f; fpufj;jpy; kdpjid ,wf;Fk; Kaw;rpapy;  mnkupf;fh ,wq;fpAs;sJ. nrt;tha;f; fpufj;jpy; jz;zPH ,Uf;fpw rhj;jpak; cz;nld mwptpayhsHfs; ek;GfpwhHfs;. mijf; fz;lwpa ehrh nrt;tha;f; fpufj;Jf;F xU ,ul;il tpz;ntspf; fg;giy 2003k; Mz;by; mDg;gp mjid jiuapwf;f  ,Uf;fpwJ.   

 

re;jpud;> nrt;tha; Nghd;w fpufq;fspy; kdpjHfisf; FbNaw;wp G+kpapy; ,d;W ngupa  gpur;rpidahfptpl;l  kf;fs;  njhifiaf;  Fiwf;f Kaw;rpfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;L tUfpd;wd. ,d;Dk; Ik;gJ Mz;Lfspy; re;jpud;> tpahod;> nrt;tha; Nghd;w fpufq;fSf;fhd tpz;ntspg; gazk; ,d;iwa tpkhdg; gazk;Nghy rHt  rhjhuzkhfp tpLk;. mq;nfy;yhk; kf;fs; FbNaw;wq;fs; eilngw;W CHfs;> efuq;fs; cz;lhfp tpLk;.

 

,g;NghNj ,Jkhjpupf; fw;gidf; fijfs;> Gjpdq;fs;>  jpiug;glq;fs; te;J tpl;ld. nfd;db mz;lntsp ikaj;ijr; Rw;wpg; ghHj;jNghJ mq;Fs;s xU jpiuauq;fpy; mg;gbahdxU glj;ij Kg;gupkhzj;jpy;  Nghl;Lf; fhl;bdhHfs;!

 

Mdhy; jkpoHfs; ,tw;iwf; ftdj;jpy; vLj;Jf;  nfhs;tjpy;iy. nrt;tha; Njh\k; Nghf rhe;jp nra;fpwhHfs;. rdp Njh\k; ePq;f vs;nsz;izr; rl;b vupf;fpwhHfs;. ,uz;L thuq;fSf;F Kd;dH rdpg;ngaHr;rp Vw;gl;lJ. jkpo;ehl;Lf;  Nfhtpy;fSf;F  gf;jHfs; gil gilahfg; NghdhHfs;. kf;fs; nts;sk; miy NkhjpaJ vd jkpo;ehL nra;jpj; jhs;fs; gugug;ghfr; nra;jp ntspapl;ld.

 

,q;Fs;s Nfhtpy;fs;$l gf;jHfis tisj;Jg; gpbf;f Nfhtpy;fis Nguq;fhb (Super Market) ghzpapy; mikj;Js;shHfs;. fhy;typf;f fil filahf Vwhky; tPl;Lf;F Ntz;ba rfy czT> kuf;fwp> ,iwr;rp vy;yhtw;iwAk; xNu ,lj;jpy; (One stop shopping) thq;fptpl Nguq;fhb ,Uf;fpwjy;yth? mNjkhjpup ,d;W xNu Nfhtpypy; vy;yhr;rhkpfisAk; xUNru topgLfpw khjpup trjp nra;J itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. gps;isahH Nfhtpypy; KUfd;> tp\;Z> rptd;>  mk;ghs;. KUfd;  Nfhtpypy; gps;isahH> rptd;> mk;ghs;. ,g;gb kw;wf; Nfhtpy;fspy; tQ;rk; nra;ahky; vy;yhf; flTsiuAk; itj;Js;shHfs;. Gjpjhf,g;NghJ etf; fpufq;fshy; ey;y tUtha; ,Uf;fpwJ vdf; fz;L   nfhz;l Nfhtpy; epHthfq;fs; mtw;iwAk; gpujpl;il gz;zp itj;jpUf;fpd;wd.  

 

KUfd; Nfhtpypy; etf;fpufq;fs; itf;ff;  $lhJ. ,J Mfk tpjp. Mdhy; gz tUthiaf; fUjp etf;fpufq;fis itf;fpwhHfs;. nghJthf ,g;NghJ Mfk tpjpia ahUk; ftdpg;gjpy;iy. Mfk tpjpg;gb mHr;rfHfs; rKj;jpuj;ijf; flf;ff; $lhJ. rKj;jpuk; GdpjkhdJ vd;gJjhd; fhuzk;. Iag;gd; rhkpf;Fk;> Iag;gd; NfhtpYf;Fk; Mfkj;jpy; ,lkpy;iy. Mdhy; rk;ge;jg;gl;ltHfs; ,J fypfhyk; vd;W VjhtnjhU  rhl;Lr;  nrhy;yp jg;gpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. xUtpjj;jpy; ,e;j Ntjhfk rhj;jpuq;fs; vy;yhk; Kd;NdhHfs; vOjpitj;j Fg;ig vd;W epidg;gJ ey;yJjhd;.

 

Nfhtpy; Kjyhspfs; gf;jHfspd; Kbr;ir ierhf mtpo;g;gjw;F Vw;wthW nra;jpj;jhs;fspYk;> thndhypfspYk; tpsk;guk; nra;fpwhHfs;.

 

thndhyp mwptpg;ghsHfs; "",why;> ez;L> kPd;> ,iwr;rp vJ Ntz;Lk; vd;whYk; vq;fis ehLq;fs;"" vd;w mq;fhb tpsk;guq;fis  thrpj;j  thNahL ,e;j NjHj; jpUtpoh tpsk;guq;fisAk; nra;fpwhHfs;.  

 

""rdp Njh\k; cs;stHfs; rdpgfthDf;F vs;nsz;izr; rl;b vupj;J mtupd; mUisg; ngw;W ca;AkhW Nfl;Lf; nfhs;sg;gLfpwhHfs;"" ,g;gb xU tpsk;guk;.  ,d;Dk; xUgb NkNy Ngha; rdp> nrt;tha;> tpaho Njh\k; ,y;yhjtHfSk; mHr;rid mgpNrfk; nra;jhy; mtHfSf;Fk; fpufq;fspd; mDf;fpufk; fpilf;Fk; vd;W tpsk;guk; nra;fpwhHfs;. mjhtJ Njh\k; ,Uf;fpwtHfs;>  Njh\k; ,y;yhjtHfs;  vd;w  ,UrhuhuJ kbKbr;rpia mtpo;f;fj;jhd; ,e;j je;jpukhd tpsk;guj;ijr; nra;fpwhHfs;!

 

gy ,yl;rk; iky;fSf;F mg;ghy; cs;s ,e;jf; fpufq;fs; jdJ tho;f;ifia  epHzapf;fpwJ my;yJ ghjpf;fpwJ vd;W jkpoHfs; cz;ikapNyNa ek;GfpwhHfs;. ek;GtJ kl;Lk; my;y fpufq;fs; gifj;JtpLk;  vd;W gae;J rhfpwhHfs;.  ,e;jf; fpufq;fspdhy; Vw;gLfpw Njh\k; Nghf> ,e;jf; fpufq;fSf;F> mjhtJ mtw;wpd;  G+Nyhf  jufHfSf;F> mHr;rid vd;w ngaupy;  nfhQ;rk;  ,yQ;rk; nfhLj;jhy; vy;yhk; rupahfg; Ngha;tpLk; vd;W gbahj Kl;lhf;fs; kl;Lk; my;y nkj;jg; gbj;J  mwptpaypy; gl;lk; thq;fpa Kl;lhs;fSk; ek;GfpwhHfs;!

 

,q;Fs;s xU thndhyp xypgug;G $l;Lj;jhgdj;jpd; nrhe;jf;fhuH> me;j epWtdj;jpd; tshfj;ijNa ahfrhiyahf khw;wp njhlHe;J %d;W gfy; %d;W ,uT NtjpaHfs;  Ntjke;jpuq;fs; Xj Nts;tp nra;jjhf mwpe;Njd;. khHf;Nfhdp vd;w mwptpayhsd;  fz;Lgpbj;j thndhypia itj;Jg; gpiog;gtHfs;$l ,j;jifa %lek;gpf;ifspy; %o;fp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. (tsUk;)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

 

 xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

fpA+gh vQ;rpAs;s ,uz;L nghJTlik ehLfspy; xd;W!

(4)

 

(ef;fPud;)

 

Nfhlk;ghfj;jpy; ve;jj; jkpo;g; glj; jahupg;ghsUk; fnkuhtpw;F fw;G+u (ag;ghdpa jahupg;G)jPgk; fhl;b G+ir Nghlhky; glg;gpbg;igj; njhlq;fNt khl;lhH. gFj;jwpthjpfshd rj;jpauh[;> kzptz;zd; Nghd;w ebfHfSk; NtW topapy;yhky; ,g;gbahd G+irapy; fye;J nfhz;L fd;dj;jpy; Nghl;Lf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. rpyrkak;  fw;G+ug; Gifgl;L fnkuhf;fs; gOjhdJk; cz;L!

 

rup tpkhdk; Gwg;gl  Maj;jkhfptpl;lJ.  ,Lg;G  thiu ,Wf;fkhf fl;LkhW tpkhdp fl;lis  gpwg;gpf;fpwhH. njhiyf; fhl;rpapy; tpkhdk; eLthdpy; tpgj;Jf;F Mshdhy; vg;gb capH ghJfhg;G rl;ilia mzpe;J nfhz;L mtru thry;topahf   ntspNawp tplNtz;Lk; vd;gJ gw;wp tpsf;fk;  nfhLf;fg;gLfpwJ. Kd;dH ,g;gbahd tpsf;fj;ij tpkhdg;  gzpg;ngz;fs; Neupy; epd;W nra;J   fhl;LthHfs;.  ,g;NghJjhd; njhiyf;fhl;rp> tPbNah vd;W etPd mwptpay; fz;L  gpbg;Gf;fs; te;J tpl;ldNt. ,e;j tpsf;fq;fis tPbNahg; glkhfg; Nghl;L njhiyf;fhl;rpapy; fhl;bdhHfs;.

 

tpkhdg; gazj;jpy; ,e;jf; fl;lk; ,Uf;fpwNj? mJ vg;NghJk; kdJf;F mr;rk; jUtjhfNt ,Uf;Fk;. tpkhdk; tpgj;Jf;Fs;shdhy; ,tw;iw vy;yhk; Nghl;Lf; nfhs;s  Neuk; fpilf;Fkh vd;gJ xd;W. ,uz;L tpkhdk; flypy;jhd; tpOk; vd;gJ vd;d epr;rak;?

 

fle;j A+iy 25k; ehs; (nrt;tha;f;fpoik) VaH gpuhd;]; epWtdj;Jf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd nfhd;Nfhl; Vvt; 4590 tpkhdk; Charles de Gaulle tpkhd epiyaj;jpy; ,Ue;J Gwg;gl;l rpy epkplq;fspy; gup]; efUf;F tlf;Nf tpOe;J nehUq;fpaJ. ,e;j tpkhdk; ngUk;ghYk;  n[Hkd;  ehl;L Rw;Wyhg; gazpfis Vw;wpf; nfhz;L epA+NahHf; efuj;ij Nehf;fpg; gwe;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,jpy; gazk; nra;j tpkhdp cl;gl 109 NgH capupoe;jhHfs;. jiuapy; xU  Nfhl;lypy; jq;fpapUe;j NkYk; 4 NgH ,we;Jgl;lhHfs;. Mf nkhj;jk; 114 NgH capupoe;jhHfs;. kpifnahyp tpkhdkhd nfhd;Nfhl; ,g;gb  xU tpgj;jpy; rpf;fpf; nfhz;lJ ,JNt Kjy; jlit vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

 

kpifnahyp tpkhdq;fshd nfhd;Nfhl; gpupj;jhdpa jahupg;ghFk;. gpupj;jhdpa VaHNt]; epWtdk; (British Airways) 1969k; Mz;L nfhd;Nfhl; tpkhdq;fis tHj;jf mbg;gilapy; Nritapy; <LgLj;jpaJ. Kg;gJ Mz;Lfs; fopj;J mjdplk; nkhj;jk; VO tpkhdq;fNs gad;ghl;Lf;F ,Ue;jd. ,tw;iw Xl;Ltjw;F 19 Flight Officers,  23 tpkhd Xl;bfs;> 23 Flight Engineers mlq;fpa FO ,Ue;jJ.  jahupg;gpy; nfhd;Nfhl; tpkhdq;fs; njhopy; El;gj;jpd; nfhLKbiaj; njhLtjhf nra;ag;gl;lit. kzpf;F 2200 fpNyh kPl;lH  Ntfj;jpy; gwf;ff;$ba ,e;j tpkhdq;fs; mj;jpyhe;jpf; rKj;jpuj;ij ,uz;L kzpj;jpahyq;fspy; fle;JtpLk;.

 

nghJthf tpkhdq;fs; jiuapy; ,Ue;J NkNy fpsk;Gk;NghJk;> gpd;dH jiuapwq;Fk; NghJNk tpgj;Jf;Fs;shfpd;wd vdg; Gs;sptpguq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jnfhd;Nfhl; tpkhdKk; jiuapy; ,Ue;J fpsk;Gk;NghNj tpgj;Jf;Fs;shdJ.

 

tpkhdj;jpd; ,lg;Gw vd;[pd; tpkhdk; XL ghijapy; XLk;NghNj jPg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lJ. Mdhy; tpkhdj;jpd; Ntfk; kzpf;F 350 fp.kP. Ntfj;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhf ,Ue;jjhy; mjidj; jiuapy; itj;Nj epw;ghl;l Kbatpy;iy. tpkhdk; XLk; Ntfk; kzpf;F 240 fp.kP. Ntfj;Jf;Ff; Fiwthf ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk mjidj; jiuapy;  epw;ghl;l KbAk;. Ntfk; kzpf;F 240 fp.kP.  Fiwthf ,Uf;F kl;Lk;  tpkhdpapd; ,Uf;iff;F Kd;dhy; xU rptg;G tpsf;F vupe;J nfhz;L ,Uf;Fk;. Ntfk; 240 fp.kP. jhz;baJk; me;j rptg;G tpsf;F jhdhf mize;J tpLk;.

 

md;iwa jpdk; tpkhdj;jpd; Ntfk; 240 fp.kP.f;F Nkyhf ,Ue;jjhy; tpkhdp NtW topapd;wp  thdpy;  fpsk;gpdhH. jpUk;gp Gwg;gl;l tpkhdepiyaj;Jf;Fg; gwg;gjw;Fg; gjpy; mUfpy;  10  fp.kP. Jhuj;jpy; ,Ue;j Le Bourget tpkhd jsj;jpy; mtrukhfj; jiuapwq;f Kaw;rp nra;jhH. mMdhy; tpkhdepiyaj;Jf;F  ,d;Dk; 5 fp.kP. Jhuk; ,Uf;Fk;NghNj tpkhdk; jiuapy; tpOe;J nehUq;fptpl;lJ.

 

XLghijapy; tpiuthf xU iky; Xba VaH fdlh tpkhdk; ,g;NghJ thdpy; fpsk;gp tpl;lJ. ngUk;ghYk; tpkhdk; fpsk;Gk; NghJk; ,wq;Fk;NghJk;  tpgj;Jf;Fs;shfpwJ vd;W NkNy Fwpg;gpl;Nld;. ,e;jf; fz;lj;ij tpkhdk; jhz;btpl;lJ kdJf;F MWjyhf ,Ue;jJ.

 

,g;NghJ Nkff; $l;lq;fs; fPNoAk; tpkhdk; NkNyAk; gwe;jJ. njhiyf;fhl;rpapy; Neuk;>tpkhdk; gwf;Fk; Ntfk;> G+kpapypUe;J tpkhdk; gwf;Fk; cauk;> tpkhdk; nry;Yk; ghij>ntl;g jl;gk; vy;yhtw;iwAk; fhl;bdhHfs;.  

 

rup. ,Jtiu tpkhdk; vq;Nf gwe;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;gijr; nrhy;ytpy;iyNa? nrhy;ytpy;iy vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;. Mdhy; fl;Liuapd; jiyg;igg; ghHj;J ePq;fs; rupahf mjid ,e;j kl;by; Cfpj;jpUg;gPHfs;.

 

tpkhdk; fpA+ghtpd; tl-fpof;Ff; fiuNahukhf cs;s tuNlNuh (Varadero) tpkhd epiyaj;ij  Nehf;fpg; gwe;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. nuhwd;Nuhtpy; ,Ue;J tuNlNuh RkhH 2600 fp.kP. Jhuk;. kzpf;F 600-750 fp.kP. Ntfj;jpy; tpkhdk; gwe;J nfhz;bUg;gjhy; ,d;Dk; %d;W %d;wiu kzpj;jpahyaj;jpy; fpA+gh Ngha;r; NrHe;J tplyhk;.

 

xU ,Uf;if fhypahf ,y;yhky; tpkhdk; gazpfshy; epuk;gp ,Ue;jJ. vy;NyhUk; fNdba Rw;Wyhg; gazpfs;.  tpLKiwia  fpA+ghtpy; fopf;fg; gwe;J  nfhz;bUf;fpwhHfs;. rup tpkhdk; jiuapwq;f ,d;Dk;  %d;W  kzpj;jpahyq;fshtJ nry;Yk;. mjw;fpilapy;  fpA+ghitg;gw;wpa rpy tuyhw;Wf; Fwpg;GfisAk; Gs;sp tpguq;fisAk; ghHj;J tpLNthk;.

 

,d;W cyfpy; vQ;rpapUf;Fk; ,uz;L nghJTlik  ehLfspy; fpA+ghTk; xd;W.  kw;wJ  tl nfhupah. et rPdh jd;id xU nghJTlik ehlhfr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;lhYk; jdpf; fl;rp vd;w xU mk;rj;ijtpl Vidait xU Kjyhspj;Jt ehl;Lf;Fupa ,yf;fzq;fshfNt njd;gLfpd;wd. mjd; nghUshjhuk; jdpAlikahf;fg; gl;Ltpl;lJ. Rje;jpu tzpf tiyaq;fs; \q;fha;> fd;ld; Nghd;w gy Kf;fpa efuq;fspy; epWtg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

cyf tzpf mikg;gpy; (World Trade Organization ) rPdh ,d;W xU cWg;gpduhf cs;sJ. ,e;j mikg;Gj;jhd; midj;J ehLfSf;F ,ilapyhd Vw;Wkjp ,wf;Fkjp tzpfj;ijf; fz;fhzpj;J xOq;F gLj;JfpwJ. (tsUk;)

 

 

 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

G+HtPf Fbkf;fs; G+z;NlhL mopf;fg;gl;lhHfs;

(5)

(ef;fPud;)

 

xU fhyj;jpy; Nrhtpaj; ehL nghJTlikthjpfsJ G+Nyhf  nrhHf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. mjd; jiyefkhd nkh];Nfht; nghJTilikthjpfSf;F nkf;fh Nghd;W Gdpj G+kpahff; fUjg;gl;lJ.

 

,e;Jkj gf;jHfs; fhrp> ,uhNkRtuk;> ahj;jpiu Ngha;te;jhy; vg;gb n[d;kk; <NlWk; vd;W ek;gpdhHfNsh mNjNghy; nghJTlikthjpfSk; Nrhtpaj; ehL Ngha;te;jhy; n[d;k rhgy;ak; fpilf;Fk; vd;W ek;gpdhHfs;. nkh];Nfhtpy; kionga;jhy; nfhOk;gpy; Fil gpbg;ghHfs; vd;W  nghJTlikthjpfs; xU fhyj;jpy; Nfyp nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;.

 

me;jf; fhyj;jpy; Nrhtpaj; ehl;bypUe;J  gytHzq;fspy;  mofhfg;  gjpg;gpf;fg;gl;l Vuhskhd rQ;rpiffs; jkpo;> rpq;fsk;> Mq;fpyk; vd Kk;nkhopfspYk; ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;ld. VjhtJ xU nghJTlik mikg;NghL njhlHG ,Ue;jhy; ,e;j rQ;rpiffs; ,ytrkhfNt fpilj;JtpLk;.  Nrhtpaj;  ehL vd;w  rQ;rpif ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J ntsptUk; Illustrated Weeekly of India ghzpapy; tpjk;tpjkhd glq;fSld;  ntspaplg;gl;lJ.  ,d;ndhU nra;jpj;jhspd; ngaH Moscow News.    

 

Nrhtpaj; ngupa ty;yurhf> mnkupf;fh> gpupl;ld;> gpuhd;]; Nghd;w  Kjyhspj;Jt  ehLfSf;F  rpk;k nrhg;gdkhf tpsq;fpa fhyj;jpy; fpA+gh Nrhtpaj; Ml;rpahsHfsJ nry;yg;gps;isahf tpsq;fpaJ. Mz;nlhd;Wf;F Nrhtpaj; ehL Ke;DhW-ehDhW Nfhb nlhyHfis

fpA+ghtpw;F cjtp epjpahff; nfhLj;J te;jJ. Aj;j jsghlq;fs;> MAjq;fs;> kpf; tpkhdq;fs;> njhopy; El;g MNyhrfHfs; vd;W Vfg;gl;l cjtpfis fpA+ghtpw;F Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; jhuhskhf toq;fpaJ.  fpA+ghtpd; rPdp Nrhtpaj; A+dpadJ vupnghUSf;F gz;lkhw;whff; nfhLf;fg; gl;lJ.  

 

Mdhy; 1990y; Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; rpjwpaNghJ fpA+gh eLj;njUtpy; tplg;gl;lJ. Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpy; vQ;rpapUe;j cUrpah fpA+ghNthL ,Ue;j nghUshjhu-murpay; njhlHGfisnky;y mWj;Jf;  nfhz;lJ.  Nrhtpaj; ehl;bd; nghUshjhu cjtpia itj;Jf;nfhz;Lmnkupf;fh jd;kPJ tpjpj;j nghUshjhuj; jilia rkhspj;J te;j fpA+gh cUrpah me;j cjtpia epWj;jptpl nghUshju neUf;fbf;F cs;shdJ.

 

,g;NghJ  $l fpA+gh xU MNuhf;fpakhd nghUshjuj;ijf; fl;b  vOg;g  Kbahj epiyapy; js;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. fpA+ghtpy; fhzg;gLk; ngupa ghyq;fs; vy;yhk; Gul;rpf;F Kd;dH (1959) ngUk;ghYk; mnkupf;fhtpdhy;  fl;lg;gl;litNa. Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH xU  ghye;jhDk; fl;lg;gltpy;iy vd;fpwhHfs;.

 

fpwp];JTf;F Kd;> fpwp];JTf;Fg; gpd; vd;W tuyhw;iwg; gpupg;gJNghy fpA+ghtpd; tuyhw;iwAk; nfhydpj;Jt Ml;rpf;F Kd;dUk; gpd;dUk; vd;W gpupf;fyhk;. fp.gp. vd;w fhyj;Jf;Fs; fpA+gh Gul;rpf;F (1959)  Kd;dH mjd; gpd;dH vd;W gpupj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

 

1959k; Mz;by;jhd;  NrFthuhTk; (Ernesto Ché Guevara

)  gply; f];NwhTk; (Fidel Castro)  NrHe;J fpA+ghtpd; Gul;rpf;F tpj;jpl;lhHfs;.  fpA+ghtpd; jiyefuhd `hthdhit gply; NrFtuh kw;Wk; fhkpNyh rpd;gpA+f]; (Camilo Sienfegos)  jiyikapyhd Gul;rpg; gilfs; 1959k; Mz;L [dtup Kjyhk;  ehs; mjpfhiy 2  kzpf;F jq;fs; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; nfhz;Lte;jhHfs;.

 

mg;NghJ fpA+gh ehl;il Ml;rp  nra;J nfhz;bUe;j rHthjpfhup gw;up];jh FLk;gKk; (Batista family) mtuJ neUq;fpa rfhf;fSk; fpA+ghit Gul;rpahsuplk; tpl;Ltpl;L nfhyk;gpah Kfhkpy; (Camp Columbia)  ,Ue;J tpkhdj;jpy; mnkupf;fhtpw;Fj; jg;gpr; nrd;whHfs;.  

gply; f];NwhTk;  xU thuk; fopj;J [dtup 7k; ehs; `hthdh te;J NrHe;jhH. ,ilapy; fpA+ghtpd; 1940k; Mz;L  murpay; ahg;G ( 1952k; Mz;L elhj;jg;gl;l ,uhZtg; Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH jsgjp gw;up];jh mjid ,ilepWj;jk; nra;J ,Ue;jhH) kPz;Lk; mKy;gLj;jg;gl;L kDNty; cHWrpah ( Manuel Ursutia)  ehl;bd; Ml;rpj; jiytuhfTk; NahNrh kpwh fhHNlhdh ( Joso Mira Cardona)  jiyik mikr;ruhfTk; epakdk; nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;.

1959k; Mz;L gq;Fdp 3k; ehs; fpA+gh Iupup (ITT) fk;gdpf;Fr;  nrhe;jkhd  fpA+gd; njhiyNgrp epWtdj;ij ehl;Llik Mf;fp njhiyNgrpf; fl;lzq;fisAk; Fiwj;jJ.  

fpA+gh re;jpj;j Kjy; Gul;rp ,Jjhd; vd;gjy;y.  rupahf  450 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH fp];ghdpNahyhtpd; jiyahupahd japNdh (Taino Chief  of Hispaniola) fpA+gh  ehl;bd; kPJ gil vLj;j ,Rngapd; gilf;F vjpuhf xU nfupy;yh Aj;jj;ij  Nkw;  nfhz;lhH. Mdhy; mtH mjpy; ntw;wp ngwtpy;iy. ,Rngapd; ehl;Lg;  gilaplk; gpbgl;l japNdh fk;gj;jpy;  fl;bitf;fg;gl;L  capNuhL nfhSj;jg;gl;lhH.  mtuJ (G+HtPf)  kf;fSk; fpl;lj;jl;l nfhd;nwhopf;fg;gl;lhHfs;.

 

vQ;rpa fpA+gh ehl;bd; G+HtPf kf;fs;  fhyg;Nghf;fpy; ,we;njhope;jhHfs;. ,d;W fpA+ghtpy; G+HtPf Fbkf;fs;  vd;W nrhy;tjw;F ahUNk ,y;iy. ,e;j cz;ik vdf;F me;j  ehl;Lf;Fg; Nghd gpd;dNu njupa te;jJ. mijj; njupe;J nfhz;lgpd; neQ;rpy; VNjh xU Ks; Fj;jp ,lWtJNghd;w czHT vdf;F  Vw;gl;lJ.  ,g;NghJ fpA+ghtpy; cs;stHfspy; gyH ,e;jg; G+HtPf kf;fisf; nfhd;wtHfspd; topj;Njhd;wy;fs;  vd;gij  vz;zpaNghJ ,e;j  ehl;Lf;F Vd; te;Njhk; vd;w ftiy tpQ;rpaJ.

 

xU ehl;bd; G+HtPf Fbkf;fis> me;j ehl;by; Mapuf;fzf;fhd Mz;Lfs; tho;e;j kf;fs; $l;lj;ij>  xUtH tplhky; nfhd;nwhopj;jhHfs; vd;gij vg;gb ,Nyrpy; nrupf;f KbAk;? ,e;j  ,dnthopg;igtpl NtW nfhLik cyfpy; ,Uf;f KbahJ.(tsUk;)

 

 

 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

,yq;ifapd; G+HtPf Fbkf;fs; jpuhtplHfNs!

(6)

(ef;fPud;)

 

,g;gbj;jhd; ,yq;ifapd; G+HtPf Fbfshd ,af;fH> ehfH> ,uhl;rjH  Nghd;Nwhiu tlehl;by; ,Ue;J te;j tp[ad; guk;giu nfhd;W Ftpj;jJ. gyH fhy nts;sj;jpy; mtHfNshL ,uz;lwf; fye;J jq;fs; milahsj;ijj; njhiyj;jhHfs;. ,jpy;  vQ;rpatHfs;jhd; mz;ikf; fhykhf fhLfspy; tho;e;Jte;j NtlHfshtH. ,tHfis jkpo; ,yf;fpak; FwpQ;rp epyj;Jf;Fupa  kf;fshf rpj;jupj;Js;sd. Ntl;ilahb kpUfq;fisf;  nfhd;W jpd;W tho;e;jjhy; NtlHfs; vdg;gl;ldH.

 

,g;gbahd xU NtLtg;  Fbapy; gpwe;j ngz;izNa me;jf; fhyj;jpy;  jkpo; kf;fsJ vjpupfisf; nfhd;nwhopj;j KUfd; fjpHfhkj;jpy; fz;L kzk;  Gupe;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. KUfd;> ts;sp> #ugJkd;> gJkNfhis> rpq;fKfd; Nghd;NwhH tuyhw;W ehaf ehafpfs;jhd;.

 

,jpy; KUfd; gpw;fhyj;jpy; flTshf;fg;gl;lhH. ,jdhy;jhd; ,e;Jkjf; flTsupy; KUfd; kl;Lk;  jkpo;f; flTshfg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhH! ,jdhy; Vida flTsH vy;NyhUk; jkpo;f; flTsH my;yH vd;w nghUs; njhf;fp epw;fpwJ. Ntz;Lnkd;why; jpUkhiyAk; (Ky;iy epyj;nja;tk;) jkpo;f; flTs;  vd;W Vw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;.

 

ehfHfs;> ,af;fHfs;> ,uhl;rjfHfs;jhd; ,yq;ifapd; G+HtPf Fbkf;fs; vd;gjw;F epiwa Mjhuq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd.

,yq;ifj;jPtpd; G+HtPf  Fbkf;fs; ahH?  jkpouh my;yJ rpq;fstuh? vd;w Nfs;tp ,yq;if Rje;jpuk; ngw;w fhyj;jpypUe;J jPtpukhf myrg;gl;L tUfpwJ.

 

,yq;ifj; jPtpd; tuyhW  fp. K.483y; ,d;iwa fypq;fk;  my;yJ tq;fhsj;jpypUe;J te;J FbNawpa tp[aDk; mtdJ vOZhW NjhoHfNshL Muk;gpf;fpwJ vd;Wk; ,yq;ifj;jPT  mtd; guk;;giuapduhd  rpq;fstHfSf;F kl;LNk nrhe;jkhd ehL vd;Wk; rpq;fs-ngsj;j jPtputhj tuyhw;whrpupaHfs; thjpf;fpwhHfs;.

 

mJkl;Lk; my;yhJ jkpoHfs; te;NjW Fbfs;> fhyj;Jf;F fhyk; ,yq;ifkPJ gilnaLj;J te;j ghz;ba Nrho kd;dHfshy; nfhz;Lte;J FbNaw;wg; gl;ltHfs;.  mtHfs; rpq;fsg; ngUk;ghd;ik kf;fsJ jatpy; thOfpd;wtHfs; vd;gJk; ,e;j rpq;fs-nghj;j ,dthjpfsJ thjkhFk;.

 

,e;j thjj;Jf;Fj; Jizhahf kfhtk;rk;> R+stk;rk;  Nghd;w ngsj;j ,jpfhrq;fs;>  rpq;fs - ngsj;j Njrpaj;jpd; Kd;Ndhbnad nfhz;lhlg;gLk;  mefhupf  jHkghy  Nghd;w rpq;fs NjrpathjpfsJ vOj;Jf;fs; Nkw;Nfhs;fshf vLj;Jf; fhl;lg;gLfpd;wd.

 

""NghH vd;gJ NtWtopfspy; Kd;ndLf;fg;gLk; murpay;""(''War is an extension of politics by other means”) vd;W Mq;fpyj;jpy; nrhy;thHfs;. ,d;iwa jkpoH-rpq;fstUf;F ,ilapyhd  <og;Nghiu,yq;ifj; jPT ahUf;Fr; nrhe;jk; vd;w murpay; Nfs;tpf;F NtW  topfspy; gjpy; fhz KidAk; Kaw;rp vd;W tHzpg;gjpy; jtwpy;iy vd;Nw nrhy;yyhk;.

 

rpq;fs-ngsj;j ,dthjpfs;  tp[adJ tUifNahLjhd; ,yq;ifj; jPtpd; tuyhW  njhlq;FfpwJ  vd vz;zp elf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; ,e;jf; fijiaf; $Wk; kfhtk;rNk tp[adJ tUiff;F Kd;dH ,yq;ifj;jPtpy;  ehfH> ,af;fH> muf;fH> Gype;jH ,Ue;jdH vd;Wk;mtHfs; nfhw;wk; itj;J nfhbNahLk; KbNahLk; gilNahLk; murhl;rp nra;jhHfs; vd;Wk; $WfpwJ. NkYk; mDuhjGuj;jpy; rpq;fs muRk;> ehfH muRk; mUfUNf

rkfhyj;jpy; Ml;rp nra;jjhfj; njupfpwJ.

 

kfhtk;rk; 6k;  Ehw;whz;by; kfhehk vd;w Gj;jNjuH xUtuhy; ghsp nkhopapy; vOjg;gl;l ,jpfhrk;  (epic) MFk;.  kfhtk;rk; vd;why; ""ngUq;FbapdH"" vd;gJ nghUshFk;. tk;rk; jkpo;r; nrhy;yhFk;. ,J ,yq;ifgw;wpa fHzguk;giu fijNahL Muk;gpj;J  kfhNrdd; Ml;rpNahL(fp.gp. 334- 362) KbTWfpwJ.  ,jd;; ,uz;lhtJ ghfk; R+stk;rk; vdg; ngaH ngWk;. ,jd; Kjy; gpupT  13k; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j jHkfPHj;jp vd;w Gj;jNjuuhy; vOjg;gl;lJ vd ek;gg;gLfpwJ.

 

kfhtk;rj;jpd; fijehafd; Jl;l ifKDntd;why; (fp.K. 101-77) R+stk;rj;jpd;  fijehafd; jhJNrdd; Mthd; ( fp.gp. 1137-1186).

jkpo;kd;dd; vy;yhsd; mDuhjGuj;jpy; ePjp jtwhj nrq;Nfhyhl;rpia  elhj;jpdhYk; mtd; ""Gd;ndwp"" (false beliefs) nfhz;ltd; vd;w fhuzj;jhNyNa mtd; kPJ Jl;l ifKD  gilnaLj;jhd; vd kfhtk;rk;  njuptpf;fpwJ.  mJkl;Lky;yhJ vy;yhsd; -ifKD Aj;jj;jj;ij jkpoHfSf;F vjpuhf rpq;fstH elhj;jpa  Gdpj  Aj;jk; vdf; fhl;l kfhtk;rk; Kad;Ws;sJ. Mdhy; vy;yhsd;-Jl;lifk;KD  Aj;jj;jpd;NghJ vy;yhsd; jug;gpy; kl;Lky;y Jl;lifKDtpd;  gilapYk; jkpoHfs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

 

ifKDtpd; gilj;jsgjpfspy; xUtdhf ee;jkpj;jd; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhd;. ,tdJ neUq;fpa  cwtpdd; vy;yhsd; gilapd; Nrdhjpgjpahf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhd;. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ cUFizapypUe;J mDuhjGuj;Jf;F gilnaLj;J te;j ifKD ,ilapy; rpw;wurHfshf  ,Ue;j 32 jkpourHfisg;  Nghupy; ntd;whd; vd;W kfhtk;rk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. ,J fp.K. ,uz;lhk; Ehw;whz;by; KO ,yq;ifapYk; jkpoHfs; gutp tho;e;jhHfs; vd;gijf; fhl;LfpwJ.

 

,yq;ifj; jPTf;F  Gj;jngUkhd;  Kk;Kiw te;jjhf kfhtk;rk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. Kjy; Kiw te;jNghJ  Ml;rpAupikgw;wp jq;fSf;Fs; Nkhjpf;nfhz;l ,uz;L ,af;f murHfspilNa rkhjhdj;ij epiy ehl;bdhH vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

 

,uz;lhtJ Kiw te;j NghJ Gj;jH ehfjPtpy; ,wq;fp muRupikgw;wp jq;fSf;Fs; NghHGupe;j ,uz;L ehf murHfsJ gpzf;ifj; jPHj;J> me;j murHfs; cupikNtz;bg; NghHGupe;j kzpj;jtrpy; mkHe;J %d;W Nfhb  ehfHfSf;F Gj;j  jUkj;ijg; Nghjpj;jhnud kfhtk;rKk; Gj;jkj fhg;gpakhd kzpNkfiyAk; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd.

 

%d;whtJ Kiw Gj;jH te;jNghJ ,d;W fsdp vd;W miof;fg;gLk; fy;ahzpapy; murcupikf;fhf  rz;ilgpbj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j kz;Nlhjud; Fz;Nlhjud; vd;w ,uz;L ehf murHfSf;fpilapy; epytpa gpzf;ifg; Nghf;fpdhH vd;W kfhtk;rk; $WfpwJ. (tsUk;)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

,yq;ifapd; G+HtPf Fbfs;!

(7)

(ef;fPud;)

 

kfhtk;rk; ,yq;ifapd; Mjpf;Fbfs; vd rpq;fstH> jur;rH> yk;Gf;fhzH ( Kay; my;yJML)> ghypNgh[fH (fhfk;)> NkhupaH (kapy;)> Gypq;jH ,tHfisf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. kfhtk;rj;jpd; fijg;gb NtlH tp[aDf;Fk; FNtdpf;Fk; gpwe;j gps;isfs; vdr; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ.  rpq;fstH fhyj;jhy; NtlHfSf;F Ke;jpatHfs; vdf; fhl;lNt  kfhtk;r MrpupaH ,e;j Gide;Jiuia GFj;jpAs;shH. NtlHfs; ngUkstpy; ,yq;ifapy; FbNawpa MupaHfNshL  ehsiltpy;  kzTwT %yk; fye;jhHfs; vd "",yq;ifapd; gioa tuyhW"" vd;w Ehypy; [p.rp.  nkd;b]; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. fz;br;rpq;fstH njd;Gyj;NjhHf;F gilay; gilf;Fk; tof;fk; NtlHfsJ fyg;gpdhy; Vw;gl;lnjd fyhepjp nrypf;kd; mgpg;gpuhag; gLfpwhH.

 

,e;j ehfHfs;> ,af;fHfs;> NtlHfs; Mjpjpuhtpl ,dkf;fs; vd;gJk; mtHfs;  rpwe;j ehfupfk; gilj;jtHfs; vd;gJk; ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. (rq;ffhyg; GytHfspy; rpyH ehfH> FwtH> FatH Fyj;jijr; rhHe;jtHfshf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.)

 

,g;NghJ Flhehlhf  tpsq;Fk;  aho;g;ghzk; Kd;ndhU fhyj;jpy;> mjhtJ fpwpe;J gpwg;gjw;F mNef Mapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ,uz;L jPTfshf ,Ue;jJ. Nkw;Nf ehfjPgk;>  kzpehfjPgk;>  kzpGuk;> kzpgy;ytk; vd;Dk; ngaHfshy; toq;fg;gl;l ngUe;jPTk;>fpof;Nf vUik Ky;iyj;jPT vd;W ngaHngw;w rpWjPTk; ,Ue;jd.

 

,it fhyj;Jf;Ff; fhyk;  ,lk;ngw;w flw;Nfhs;fspdhy; ngUk;gFjp mope;J Nghapd. ,d;W aho;ghzf;Flh ehl;ilr; Rw;wpapUf;Fk; Gq;FLjPT> mdiyjPT> kz;iljPT  Nghd;wjPTfs; mg;ngUe;jPtfj;jpd; kpQ;rpa gFjpfNsahFk;.

 

fp.K. tl ,e;jpahit Mz;l  ghz;ltHfspy; xUtdhd mHr;Rdd; jPHj;jahj;jpiu Nkw;nfhz;lNghJ ,d;iwa fPupkiyahd eFykiyiaf; nfhz;l kzpGuj;Jf;F te;jhndd;Wk;> me;j ehl;L ehfturddpd;  kfs;  rpj;jpuhq;fijiaf; fz;L fhjy; nfhz;L mtis jpUkzk; nra;jhndd;Wk; ghujf;fijapy; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. mUr;Rdd; -rpj;jpuhq;fij ,UtUf;Fk;   gpwe;j rpj;jputhfd; vd;ghd;  jdJ je;ijahfpa mUr;Rdidg; Nghupy; ntd;whd; vd;Wk; mtdJ nfhb rpq;ff; nfhbnad;gJk; kfhghujj;jhy; mwpag;gLk;.

 

,e;jr; rpq;ff; nfhbNa tp[adpd; re;jjpNahL ehfHfs; kzTwT itj;J ,uz;lwf; fye;jNghJ rpq;fstupd; nfhbahfg; gpd;dH khwpaJ.

 

FNtdpia kze;j tp[ad;  mtisf; iftpl;Lg;  gpd; ghz;ba ,sturpia kze;J nfhz;lhd; vd;W kfhtk;rk; Fwpg;gpl;lhYk; Fyg; gpd;dzp vJTk; ,y;yhj tp[aDf;F %Nte;jHfspy; xUtdhfpa ghz;bad;  ngz; nfhLj;jpUf;f khl;lhd; vd;Wk;  ehffd;dpif xUj;jpiaNa  tp[ad; kzKbj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;  vd;Wk; KjypahH rp. ,urehafk; mtH  vOjpa aho;g;ghzr; rupj;jpuk; vd;Wk; Ehypy; $wpAs;shH.

 

ehfH> ,af;fH> muf;fH> NtlH ,tHfs; vy;NyhUk; Kd; Fwpg;gl;lJ Nghy; ,dj;jhy; jpuhtplHfNs. rkaj;jhy; irtHfNs. ,NjNghy; fypq;fj;jpypUe;J  ,yq;if te;j tp[aDk; mtNdhL te;j fypq;fHfSk; rkaj;jhy; rpt topghl;bdNu.

 

ehfH> ,af;fiu kdpjuy;yhNjhH my;yJ miukdpjHfshf  kfhtk;rk; rpj;jupg;gjd; Nehf;fk; rpq;fstNu Mjpf;Fbnad;w khaia Njhw;Wtpg;gjw;NfahFk;.

 

tp[ad; ,yq;ifapy;  jiuapwq;fpaNghJ  ,d;Ws;s Ie;J <Rtuq;fshd jpUf;NfjPRtuk;>  eFNyRtuk;>  jpUf;NfhNzRtuk; khkhq;NfRtuk; kw;Wk; Kd;dPRtuk; Nghd;w rpthyaq;fs;  mg;NghJk; ,Ue;jpUf;fpd;wd. ,tw;wpy; jpUf;NfjPRtuKk; NfhNzRtuKk; Mwhk;  Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j jpUQdrk;ge;j ehadhH> Re;ju%Hj;jp ehadhH ,UtuhYk; Njthug; ghly;ngw;w jpUf;Nfhtpy;fshFk;.

 

Nky;Fwpg;gpl;l Ie;J <Rtuq;fistpl njd;dpyq;ifapy; Gfo; ngw;w fjpHfhkk;> NjNte;jpuKidapy; re;jpunksyPRtuH Nghd;w irtrka Myaq;fSk; kj;jpapy; rptndhspghj kiyAk; ,Ue;jpUf;fpd;wd.

 

,yq;ifia Mz;l ,af;fHFy kd;ddhd ,uhtzd; kpfr; rpwe;j rptgf;jdhf  tpsq;fpatd;. jpUQhdrk;ge;jH "",uhtzd;   NkyJ ePW"" vd;W jpUEhw;Wg; gjpfj;jpy; ,tidg; Nghw;wpg; ghbAs;shH. vl;lhk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j khzpf;fthrfH  ,uhtzdpd;  gl;lj;jurpia  ""MHfyp R+o;njd;dpyq;if mofkH kz;Nlhjupf;Fg; NguUs; ,d;gk; mspj;j ngUe;Jiw Nkagpuhid  rPupathahy; FapNy njd;ghz;behlidf; $tha;"" vdf; Fapy;gj;jpy; rpwg;gpj;Jg; ghbAs;shH.

 

 ""ngUe;Jiw Nkagpuhd;"" vd;W Jha jkpopy; ""ehSk; ,d;dpirahy; jkpo; gug;Gk; Qhdrk;ge;jd; "" Fwpg;gpl;lJ khNjhl;lj;J jpUf;NfjPRtuj;jpy; vOe;jUsp ,Uf;Fk; rptidNa. kh vd;why; ngupaJ vd;W nghUs;. Njhl;lk; vd;why; Jiw vd;W nghUs;. ,e;j khNjhl;lNk gd;ndLq;fhykhf ,yq;ifapd; Kf;fpa JiwKfkhf tpsq;fpaJ. tq;fhsf;Flhf; flYf;$lhf fPioj;Njrq;fSf;Fg; gazk; nra;Ak; kuf;fyq;fSk;> rPdNjrj;jpypUe;J tUk; kuf;fyq;fSk; khNjhl;lk; topahfNt Ngha;te;jd.

 

  jpUf;NfhNzRtu kiyapy; fhzg;gLk; Mokhd  ngupa ntl;L ,uhtzd; ntl;nld;Nw ,d;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpwJ. jpUNfhzkiyf;F tlf;Nf cs;s fd;dpahtpy; fhzg;gLk; nte;ePH Cw;Wf; fpzWfs; ,uhtzd; jdJ jhahupd; ,Wjpr; rlq;fpid nra;tjw;F ntl;bdhd; vd;w IjPfKk; ,d;Wtiu jkpo; kf;fspilNa ,Ue;JtUfpwJ.

 

,uhkhaz fhyj;jpy;> ,yq;ifapd; Nkw;Ff; fiuNahuj;jpy; ,g;NghJ khNjhl;lk; (kd;dhH) vd;W miof;fg;gLk; khe;ij vd;Dk;  efiuj; jiyefuhff; nfhz;LehfH  tFg;igr; NrHe;j Xtpa Fyj;jtUk;> Njtrpw;gpAkhfpa tpRtfHkhtpd; tk;rj;jtuhfpa  fk;kpaH  Ml;rpnra;J te;jhHfs;. ,yq;if Nte;jd; ,uhtzd;  Njtp  kz;NlhjupAk;> (kz;Nlhjupapd; ,aw; ngaH tz;lhHFoyp MFk;. mjhtJ tz;Lfs; nkha;j;J Muthupf;Fk; G+f;fs; mzpe;j $e;jiyAilats; vd;gJ nghUs;.  Mdhy; tlehl;Lf; ftpQH thy;kPfp kz;Nlhjup vd;gij ngupa tapW cilats; (kz;L-ngupa> cjup-tapW) vd;W ,opthf vOjptpl;lhH. mJNghyNt #Hg;gdifapd; ,aw;ngaH fhkty;yp MFk;. Mdhy; thy;kPfp #Hg;g vd;why; Kwk;> efh vd;whs; gy;iyAilats; mjhtJ 'Kwg;gy;yp' vd;W ,opTgLj;jp tpl;lhH. kwj;jkpod; ,uhtzdpd; jk;gp Fk;gfHzdpd; ngaH Flf;fhjd; (Fk;gk; Flk;> fHzd; vd;why; fhJfis cilatd;) vdg; nghUs;gl gopj;J vOjp tpl;ldH. tl MupaHfs; ,t;thW jkpopdj;J kd;dHfs;> murpfs;> tPuHfs; ngaHfis ,opj;Jk; gopj;Jk; ngaH #l;btpl;ldH.) mtd; rpwpa je;ijahfpa FNgud;  Njtp rpj;jpuNuifAk;> ,k;khe;j efiu Mz;l  Njtek;kpa murFy  tk;rj;Jg; ngz;fNs. KUff;  flTshy;  Ml;nfhs;sg;gl;l mRuHNfhdhfpa R+ugJkDila Njtp gJkNfhisAk; khe;ij efuj;jtNs. (tsUk;)

 

 

 

 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

"" fz;fs; vg;NghJk; fz;buhj NguoF""

(8)

 

(ef;fPud;)

khe;ijia Mz;l murH fhe;jf;Nfhl;il vd;W gyNjrj;jhuhy;  Nghw;wg;gl;lJk;> Jhq;nfapy; vd;W GwehDhw;wpy; rpwg;gpf;fl;lJkhd ,Uk;Gf; Nfhl;ilia cilatHfshfTk;> thzpgr; nropg;Gw;wtHfshfTk;> tPuk; nfhil> ,ir> rpw;gk;> Xtpak; Nghd;wtw;wpy; rpwg;Gw;wtHfshfTk; tpsq;fpdhHfs;.

 

khe;ijapy;   tho;e;j XtpaFyj;jhupd; rpj;jpuj; njhopypd; rpwg;Gf;fhuzkhfNt Xtpak; vd;w nrhy; jkpopy; toq;FfpwJ.

 

,d;W irtHfs; gpbf;Fk;  fe;jr\;b tpujk; #ugJkDf;F vjpuhd Nghupy; ,we;njhope;j gy;yhapuf; fzf;fhd  NghuhspfsJ epidthf  Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l eLfy; topghlhFk;. mjd; toptop kuGjhd; ,d;iwa  khtPuH epidT tpoh!

 

jkpoHfs; tpopg;NghL ,Uf;fhtpl;lhy; fpA+ghtpy; me;j ehl;Lg; G+HtPfkf;fSf;F Vw;gl;l nfjpjhd; mtHfSf;Fk; Vw;gLk;.

 

jkpoHfis ehsilapy; rpq;fstHfshf  khw;WtNj  rpq;fs murpay;thjpfsJ me;juq;f Nehf;fkhFk;. Vw;fdNt kiyehl;by; thOk; jkpoHfs; gyH may; fpuhkq;fspy; thOk; rpq;fs fpuhkthrpfis jpUkzk; nra;J rpq;fstHfshf khwptpl;lhHfs;. Kd;ida fhyq;fspy; Njhl;lj; jkpoHfs; Njhl;lj;jpNyNa gpwe;J> Njhl;lj;jpNyNa thoe;J> Njhl;lj;jpNyNa ,we;jhHfs;. mtHfsJ cly;fs; vupf;fg;gLtjw;Fg; gjpy; Njapiyj; Njhl;lj;Jf;F cukhfj; jhf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;j cz;ik gy jkpoHfSf;Fj; njupahJ.

 

Gj;jsk;> ePHnfhOk;G> rpyhgg; gFjpapy; tho;e;j  jkpoHfs; (gujtH) nrd;w Ehw;whz;bd; Kw;gFjpapy; rpq;fstHfshf khw;wg; gl;lhHfs;. mtHfSila jha;nkhopf;Fg; gjpy;  md;iwa jdpahH fj;Njhypf;fg;  gs;spf;$lq;fspy;  rpq;fs nkhopiaf; fw;if nkhopahf xU fj;Njhypf;f Mz;lif GFj;jpaNj ,jw;Fupa fhuzpahFk;.  

 

Njhl;lq;fs; vOgJfspy; muRlik Mf;fg;gl;l gpd;dH mtw;wpw;Fk; mtw;iwr; Rw;wpAs;s fpuhkq;fSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd vy;iy Ntypfs; mfw;wg;gl;L tpl;ld. ,jd; fhuzkhf jkpoHfs; rpq;fstHfshf khWk; mghak; mjpfupj;Js;sJ. jkpo;g; gs;spfs; ,y;yhj fhuzj;jhy; mk;ghe;Njhl;il Nghd;w gFjpfspy; thOk; jkpoHfs; jq;fs; gps;isfis rpq;fsg; gs;spfSf;F tpLfpwhHfs;. rpq;fsj;ijg; gbj;J ntspNaWk; ,tHfs; ehsiltpy; rpq;fstHfshfNt khwptpLthHfs;.

 

,d;iwa rpq;fstHfspy; ghjpg;NgH xU fhyj;jpy; Rj;j jkpoHfshf ,Ue;jtHfNs. njd;dpyq;ifapy; gutyhf thOk; ryhfk ""rhjpapdH""jkpo;ehl;by; ,Ue;J fUthg;gl;il cupg;gjw;fhf ,yq;iff;Ff;  xy;yhe;jHfshy; nfhz;L Nghfg;gl;ltHfs;. nfhy;tpd; MH.b rpy;th> rp.gp.b rpy;th Nghd;NwhH ,e;j tFg;igr; NrHe;jtHfNs. fz;ba epyf;fpohH gyupd;  mb NtH jkpo;ehLjhd;. rpq;fs murHfs; ngUk;ghYk; ghz;behl;L ,sturpfisNa jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;. Kjyhk; guhf;fpukghFtpd; ghl;bahH ngaH cyfkfhNjtp. Nfhl;il ,uhr;rpaj;jpy;  nry;thf;NfhL tpsq;fpa nrz;gfg;ngUkhs;> moff;NfhdhH guk;giuapdH Nruehl;Lj; jkpoHfNs.

 

vdNt kiyehl;Lj; jkpoH jq;fs; milahsj;ij ,of;fhky; ,Uf;f tl-fpof;Ff;F ,lk; ngau Ntz;Lk;. mg;gb ,lk; ngauhtpl;lhy;  mtHfs; ,uz;nlhU  jiyKiwapd;  gpd; KOr; rpq;fstHfshf khwptpLthHfs;.  

 

tpkhdk; jiuapwq;f ,d;Dk; nrhw;g NeuNk ,Ue;jJ.   mjw;Fs; fpA+ghgw;wpa gUe;Jg; ghHitnahd;iwg; ghHj;J tpLNthk;.

 

thdj;jpy; ,Ue;J ghHj;jhy;  fpA+gh  jz;zPUf;F  NkNy fpof;F- Nkw;fhff; fplf;Fk;  KjiyNghy fhl;rpaspf;fpwJ.  

 

fpA+ghtpd; KOg;ngaH fpA+gh FbauR. mjd; tlGwk; ml;yhd;bf; rKj;jpuk;. njd;Gwk; fupgPad; fly; (Caribbean Sea). fpA+ghTf;F kpf mz;ikapy; (180 fp.kP. ) mnkupf;f khepyq;fspy; xd;whd Gswplh ,Uf;fpwJ.  gfhkh]; mijtpl mz;ikapy; 140 fp.kP. Jhuj;jpy; cs;sJ. njd;Nkw;fpy; cs;s fd;Fd; nkf;rpf;Nfh 210 fp.kP. Jhuj;jpy; cs;sJ. mnkupf;fhtpw;F flw;gilj; js cgNahfj;jpw;F Fj;jiff;F nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s  Guantanamo Bay  29 rJu fp.kP. Jhuj;jpy; cs;sJ.

 

fpA+ghtpd; nkhj;j epyg;gug;G 111>860 rJu fp.kP. ePsk; 1200 fp.kP. (750 iky;fs;). ,jd; mfyk; mjpy; fhy;thrp. mjdJ flw;fiu RkhH 3>735 fp.kP. ePsk;. Ehw;Wf;Fk; mjpfkhd ,aw;iff; flw;fiufs; cs;sd. nfhyk;g]; fpA+ghit Kjy; Kiw ghHj;jNghJ ""fz;fs; vg;NghJk; fz;buhj NguoF"" vd;W ghuhl;bajpy; ve;jnthU tpag;Gk; ,y;iy vd;Nw nrhy;yyhk;.

 

fpA+ghtpd; njd;fpof;fpy; kiyfs; cz;L. kw;wg;gb mJ ngUk;ghYk; xU rkntspahFk;. kpfg;ngupa kiyapd; (Pico Turquino) cauk; 2>005 kPl;lH MFk;.

 

fpA+gh fdptsq;fs; epiwe;j ehL. Nfhghy;;l;> epf;fy;> cg;G> ,Uk;G> kq;fdPrpak;>  rpypfh> kuq;fs;> ngl;Nwhypak; Nghd;w tsq;fs; cz;L.

 

Ntshz;;Jiwapy; fUk;G> Gifapiy> Njhil> ehuj;ij vYkpr;irg; goq;fs;> Nfhg;gp>  cUisf;fpoq;F> fliy> fhy;eil Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpd;wd.

 

fpA+ghtpd; kf;fs;njhif 1998k; Mz;L kjpg;gPl;bd;gb 11>050>729 MFk;. kf;fsJ ruhrup mfit 75.64 Mz;Lfs;. ,jpy; Mz;fs; 73.29 Mz;Lfs;. ngz;fs; 78.13 Mz;Lfs;.

 

,duPjpahf fpA+ghtpy; 51 tpOf;fhL fyg;G ,dj;jtH (Mulatto). nts;isaH  37  tpOf;fhL. fUg;gH 11 tpOf;fhL. rPdH 1 tpOf;fhL. rPdH ,y;yhj ehNl cyfpy; ,y;iyNghy; njupfpwJ.

 

fpA+ghtpd; cj;jpNahf nkhop ];gdp\;. fpA+gh 14 khfhzq;fshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. jiyefuk; `hthdh. fpA+gh 1902k; Mz;L Nk khjk; 20k; ehs; ];ghdp\; ehl;bd; gpbapypUe;J  tpLtpj;Jf; nfhz;lgpd;dH jd;id xU Rje;jpu ehlhfg; gpufldg;gLj;jpaJ. mjw;F Kd;dH ehyhz;Lfs; fpA+gh mnkupf;fhtpd; epHthfj;jpd; fPo; ,Ue;jJ. (tsUk;)

 

 

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

mz;zd; rdhjpgjp jk;gp cg rdhjpgjp!

(9)

 

(ef;fPud;)

fpA+ghtpd; ePjp epHthfk; ];ghdp\;> mnkupf;fh rl;lq;fspd; mbg;gilapYk;> nghJTlik Nfhl;ghLfspd; mbg;gilapYk; eilngWfpwJ.

 

fpA+ghtpd; rl;lrig "kf;fsJ mjpfhu Njrpa rig" (""National Council of Peoples Authority”) vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. mjpy; rpwg;G Ntl;ghsH Mizak; xd;wpdhy; epakdk; nra;ag;gLk; 601 cWg;gpdHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. ,tHfsJ gjtpf;fhyk; 5 Mz;Lfs;.  ,e;j Njrpa rig mur rig ( National State Assembly) mikr;ruitapy; ,lk;ngWk; rdhjpgjp> cgrhdhjpgjp kw;Wk; mikr;rHfis NjHe;njLf;fpwJ. mNjNghy;  cr;r ePjpkd;wj;jpd; rdhjpgjp> cgrdhjpgjp kw;Wk;  ePjpgjpfisAk;  ,e;j Njrpa rig epakpf;fpwJ.

 

jw;NghJ murpd; jiytuhfTk;> murhq;fj;jpd; jiytuhfTk; gply; f];Nwh gjtp tfpf;fpwhH. mur rigapd; cgrdhjpgjpahfTk;> mikr;ruitapd; cgrdhjpgjpahfTk; gply; f];Nwhtpd; rNfhjuH whTy; f];Nwh gjtp tfpf;fpwhH.

 

fpA+gh xU nghJTlik ehnld;Wk; mq;Nf xU fl;rp  (Cuban Communist Party )

Ml;rp epyTfpwJ vd;gijAk;  Vw;fdNt $wpapUf;fpNwd;.


fpA+ghtpd; fhyepiy ntl;gkz;lyg;
(Tropical) gFjpiar; rhHe;jJ. Mff;$ba my;yJ Mff;Fiwe;j ntl;gjl;g epiyiag; ghHf;f KbahJ. rhJthd FspNuhL rpy;nyd;W tPRk; fhw;W. kiof;fhyk; itfhrp - Ig;grp. Nfhilfhyk;  fhHj;jpif- rpj;jpiutiu. ruhrup ntl;gk; 25.5 bf;fpwp nry;rpa];. Nfhilappy; 28.0 bf;fpwp nry;rpa];.  FspHfhyj;jpy; 25.5 bf;fpwp nry;rpa];. Mz;by; ruhrup 330 ehl;fs; #upa ntspr;rk; ,Uf;fpwJ. kio tPo;r;rp xU Mz;by; 1>515 kp.kP. fdtsthFk;.

 

tpkhdk; gj;jpukhf jiuapwq;fpaJ. vy;NyhUk; ,wq;fp FbtuTr; rlq;Ffis Kbj;Jf; nfhs;sg; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. vdJ fz;zpy; Kjy;gl;l taJNghd fpA+ghdpaH me;j ehl;ilg; NghyNt thbtjq;fpf; fhzg;gl;lhH. xU gzf;fhu Kjyhk; cyf ehl;bypUe;J  %d;whtJ cyf ehl;Lf;Fg; Nghapwq;fpdhy; tpkhd epiyaj;jpNyNa ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy;  cs;s Ntw;Wik gspr;nrdj; njupAk;.  mjpYk; ,yz;ld; tpkhd epiyaj;jpy; ,Ue;J gk;gha; tpkhdk; Ngha; ,wq;FgtHfSf;F ,e;j tpj;jpahrk; Jyhk;gukhfj; njupAk;.

 

Ml;fs;> fl;blq;fs;> fhyepiy vy;yhNk jiyfPohf ,Uf;Fk;.  ,yz;ld;> nuhwd;Nuh> rpq;fg;G+H Nghd;w ehLfspd; tpkhdepiyaj;jpy; gazpfis vg;gbnay;yhk; kupahijNahL elhj;JfpwhHfs;. FbtuT mjpfhup "NrH" Nghl;Lj;jhd; NgRthH. ks ksntd;W flTr;rPl;ilg; ghHj;J mDg;gp tpLthHfs;. ngl;bfisAk; jpwe;J ghHf;fhkNyNa mDg;gp itg;ghHfs;. gk;gha;> nrd;id vd;why; fhy;fLf;f epw;f Ntz;Lk;. nfhQ;rk; ,rf;Fg; gprfhf Ngrpdhy;  """ts;"" ""ts;"" vd;W tpOe;J fbj;J tpLthHfs;!

 

xUKiw gk;gha; tpkhd epiyaj;jpy; flTr;rPl;by; Kj;jpiu Fj;Jtjw;F kj;jpa fpof;F ehLfspy; ,Ue;J te;j gazpfs; me;j mjpfhupf;F mtH Nfl;fhkNyNa gzk; nfhLj;jijg; ghHj;Njd;.  mtUk; xU ifahy; &gha; Nehl;Lf;fis thq;fpf; fhy;rl;ilg; igf;Fs; milj;Jf; nfhz;L kWifahy; "yhd;ll;" Kj;jpiu Fj;jpf; nfhz;bUe;jhH. fpA+tupir fpilahJ.  ehq;fs;  Kf;fhy; kzpj;jpahyk; fhy; fLf;f epd;W me;j mjpfhupaplk;  Kj;jpiu Fj;jpf;  nfhz;L Rq;fg; gupNrhjidf;Fg; NghNdhk;. mq;Fk; mNj fhl;rpjhd;.

 

fpA+ tupirapy; epd;w vq;fisf; ftdpf;f Ntz;ba  Rq;f  mjpfhup mbf;fb foptiwf;Fg; NghtJk; tUtJkhf ,Ue;jhH. mtH Nghd xt;nthU  jlitAk; xU gazpAk; mNj foptiwf;F cs;Ns Ngha;  ntspNa te;jhH. ahUf;Nfh gae;J  nfhLg;gdT nfhs;tdT %ba foptiwf;Fs; elg;gijg; Gupe;J nfhz;Nlhk;.

 

vq;fsJ Kiw te;jJk; ehd; ifapy; itj;jpUe;j me;jf; fhyj;Jf; fzzp xd;wpid mtuplk; fhl;bNdd;. mij ehd; nfhOk;Gf;F vLj;Jf; nfhz;L Nghfg; Nghtjhf mtuplk;  nrhd;Ndd;. mtH mijf; fhjpy; Nghl;Lf; nfhs;shky; me;jf; fzzpia gwpj;J itj;Jtpl;lhH. ,yz;ldpy; fil filahf Vwp thq;fpa fzdp  mJ. mg;NghJjhd; (1982) fzdp  mwpKfkhd fhyk;.

 

""mLj;j ehs; tpkhdk; nrd;idf;Fg;  Gwg;gLk;NghJ mij ePq;fs; cq;fNshL  vLj;Jr; nry;yyhk;""  

 

 ""mij ehd; tpw;fg; Nghtjpy;iy. Ntz;Lk; vd;why; flTr; rPl;by; vOjptpLq;fs;"" vd;Nwd;.  kdpjH tplhf;fz;lH. kWj;J tpl;lhH.

 

mLj;j ehs; Nghdhy; me;jf; fzzpia nrd;idf;Ff; nfhz;LNghf  KbahJ  nfhOk;Gf;Fg; NghFk;NghJjhd; mjidj; juKbAk; vd;W nrhd;dhHfs;.

 

"" mg;gbnad;why; nrd;id tpkhdepiyaj;Jf;F mij mDg;Gq;fs;. mq;fpUe;J nfhOk;Gf;Fg; NghFk;NghJ vLj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwd;"" vd;Nwd;.

 

 mjw;Fk; mtHfs; rk;kjg; gltpy;iy. tpkhdNrit CopaHfs; me;jg; nghWg;ig vLj;Jf; nfhs;s  fz;bg;ghf kWj;Jtpl;lhHfs;. mJ jq;fSila gzpay;y vd;W nrhy;yptpl;lhHfs;.

 

mq;Fs;s Rq;f Nkyjpfhupfs;> VaH ,e;jpah Nkyjpfhupfs; vdj ; Njbr; nrd;W  vy;Nyhuplj;jpYk; nfQ;rpg; ghHj;Njhk;. xUj;jUk; mire;J nfhLf;ftpy;iy.  tpkhdk; Gwg;gl  Neukhfptpl;lJ. ,UEhW gTz; (1982) ngWkjpahd fzzpf;F xU ""xU Fl;ig""  nrhy;yptpl;L  Xbg;Ngha; tpkhdj;jpy; Vwpf; nfhz;Nlhk;. tpkhdj;ij jtwtpl;lhy; kWgb Nfhl;lYf;Fg; NghfNtz;Lk;!

 

nrd;idf;Fg; NghdTld; vkJ tUiff;fhff; fhj;jpUe;j FLk;g  ez;guplk; ele;j  fijia  tpyhthupahfr;  nrhd;Ndd;. mtH vd;d nrhd;dhH njupAkh? (tsUk;)

 

fpA+gh gazf; fl;Liu

xU gUe;jpd; epoypy;!

 

"" rpIVapd; CLUtYf;Fg; gag;gLk; fpA+gh!""

(10)

 

ef;fPud;

 

""cq;fSf;F Gj;jpNa ,y;iy! ,J ,e;jpah! Gz;zpa G+kp! ePq;fs; mtiuf; nfhQ;rk; ftdpj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;""

 

"" vtiu?""

 

""me;j mjpfhup foptiwf;Fs; NghtJk; tUtJkhf ,Ue;jij ePq;fs; ghHj;jPHfs;jhNd? mg;Gwk; vd;d? ePq;fSk; foptiwg; gf;fk;Ngha; xU Ie;J gTz; Nehl;il mg;gbNa js;spapUf;f Ntz;Lk;!""

 

vd;idg; ghHj;J vdf;Fg; Gj;jpNa ,y;iy vd;W nghJthf ahUk; nrhy;tjpy;iy. nfhOk;Gj;Jiw MWKfehtyH jkpo; tpj;jpahyaj;jpy; gbj;jNghJk; rup> gpd;dH gupNahthd; fy;Yhupapy; gbj;jNghJ rup mg;Gwk; caH fy;tp fw;wNghJk; rup  gbg;gpy; "nfl;bf;fhud;" vd;W ngaH thq;fpatd;. Ehw;wpapUgJ NgH vOjpa  (md;iwa) v];.v];.rp. guPl;irapy; %d;WNgHjhd;  rpj;jpaile;jhHfs;. me;j %d;W  Ngupy;  ehDk; xUtd;. mg;gbapUf;f vdf;F Gj;jpapy;iy vd;W ez;gH nrhd;dJ vdf;F mbNahL gpbf;ftpy;iy.

 

""eP Ie;J gTZf;Fg; gjpy; gj;Jg; gTz; Nehl;il tpl;nlwpe;jpUe;jhy; me;jg; nghUis nrd;id kl;Lk; fhtpf; nfhz;L te;J je;jpUg;ghd;fs;!"" vd;whH. ,ij vOjpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;NghJ Gz;zpa G+kpahd ghujk;gw;wp ( ,e;jpahtpd; cj;jpNahf G+Htkhd ngaH ghuj;) te;j nra;jpiag; gbf;f NeHe;jJ.

 

  Transparency International ransparency International  vd;w muR rhHgw;w mikg;G 2000k; Mz;by; Coy;gw;wp 90 ehLfspy; xU Ma;T elhj;jpaJ. mjpy; ,e;jpah 69tJ ,lj;ijg ; gpbj;J ""rhjid"" gilj;Js;sJ. xd;W Kjy; gj;J tiuapyhd xU Coy; GyDzHT msTNfhypy; ( Corruptionn Perception  Scale) ,e;jpah 2.8 Gs;spiag; ngw;Ws;sJ. fle;j Mz;L ,J 2.9 Mf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;jg; Gs;sp tpguk; nrd;w Mz;iltpl ,e;j Mz;L ,e;jpahtpy;  Coy; tsHr;rp ngw;wpUg;gijf; fhl;LfpwJ! ,jpy; Kjyhtjhf mjhtJ Coyw;w ehlhf te;j ehL vJ njupAkh? gpd;yhe;J ehL. ,e;j ehL gj;Jf;F gj;J Gs;spfs; ngw;wJ.  mjw;F mLj;jjhf nld;khHf; (9.8)> epA+rPye;J(9.4). If;fpa ,uh[;rpak; 13tJ ,lk;. mnkupf;fh 14tJ (7.8) ,lk; ( nrd;w Mz;L 18). rPsh 63tJ (6.3) ,lk;. cUrpah 82tJ (2.8) ,lk;. filrp ,lk;? cq;fs; Cfk; rup - tof;fk;Nghy ierPupah!

 

vdJ tho;f;ifapy; vl;by; xU gFjp ,e;j ehl;by;jhd; fope;jJ. cyfj;jpy; ftiy vd;Dk; Nga;f;F ,iuahfhJ ey;yNjh nfl;lNjh> ,d;gNkh Jd;gNkh vijAk; kfpo;r;rpNahL  vLj;Jf; nfhz;L tho ierPupa kf;fs; gofpapUf;fpwhHfs;. ,d;iwa  ehisf;F tho;. mLj;j ehs;gw;wp ftiyg;glhNj. mij kWehs; ghHj;Jf; nfhs;syhk; vd;gJ ,tHfsJ jj;Jtk;.

 

ierPupahtpy; thfd tpgj;J mjpfk;. thlif tz;b Xl;bdHfs; fz;tpz; njupahky; tz;bia Xl;LthHfs;. mg;gb XLk;NghJ rhujp tpgj;jpy; rpf;fp ,we;J NghdhH vd;W itj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.

 

,we;jtiu ,];yhk; kj tof;fj;jpw;F ,zq;f khiyf; fpilapy; Gijj;J tpLfpwhHfs;. mtuJ ehd;F kidtpiaAk; mtuJ nrhj;Jf;fisAk; ,we;jtuJ mz;zd; jk;gpkhHfs; jq;fSf;Fs; Ngrpg; giwe;J gq;F Nghl;Lf; nfhz;L Ngha;tpLfpwhHfs;!

 

ez;gH nrhd;dijapl;L Nahrpj;Jg; ghHj;jjpy; mJ rupahfNt gl;lJ. ifA+l;L thq;ff; $lhJ vd;gJ ey;y nfhs;ifahf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy; ifA+l;Lf; nfhLf;ff;$lhJ vd;gJ mg;gbg;gl;ljy;y. nfhLf;fh tpl;lhy; ,og;Gf;fis re;jpf;f Ntz;btUk;. gpw;fhyj;jpy; vdJ nfhs;ifia khw;wp nfhQ;rk; mg;gpb ,g;gb ""tise;J nfhLf;fg;""  gofpf; nfhz;Nld;!  Mq;fpyj;jpy; adjust  vd;W nrhy;thHfs;.

 

xUKiw vdJ kfd; jdpahf tpkhdj;jpy;  ierPupah te;jhH. mtH jLg;G+rp Nghl;Lf; nfhz;L ierPupah te;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mq;F me;j kUe;J ,y;iynad;gjhy; mijg; Nghlhky; kfd; te;J tpl;lhH. Nfl;fth Ntz;Lk;. ierPupah ,e;j ifA+l;Lf; fiyapy;  cyfstpy; rhjid gilj;j ehL! mg;Nghnjd;d ,g;NghJk; ,e;jj; Jiwapy;  Kjy; ,lk; gpbj;J itj;Jf;  nfhz;Ls;s ehL. tpkhdepiyaj;jpy; kfid xU fpoikf;F jLj;J itj;jpUf;fg; Nghtjhfr; nrhd;dhHfs;.  

 

vdJ kfNdhL Kd;dhs; kj;jpa fy;Yhup mjpgH rz;Kfehjdpd; kfDk; mNj tpkhdj;jpy; te;J mNj rpf;fYf;Fs; khl;Lg;gl;Lg; NghdhH. mjpgH rz;Kfehjd;  ey;y Mq;fpyj;jpy; mtHfNshL thf;Fthjg; gl;lhH. ehd; nky;y mtiur; rkhjhdg;gLj;jp xU %iyapy; cl;fhu itj;Jtpl;L ""kh];lH (mtH vd;idg; gbg;gpj;jtH) nfhQ;rk; ,g;gb ,Uq;fs;.clNd te;JtpLfpNwd;"" vd;w nrhy;yptpl;L me;j mjpfhupNahLNgha; jdpahfg; NgrpNdd;.

 

,uz;L ngupa eauh (ierPupah ehl;Lf; fhR) jhs;fis vLj;J  mtuJ  NkirNky; tpl;nlwpe;Njd; (me;j ehl;by; ifA+l;il gj;Jg;NgH ghHf;FkhW nfhLf;fyhk;. Fw;wkpy;iy!). mLj;j epkplk; thnay;yhk; gy;Yj;njupa flitr; rPl;Lfspy; Kj;jpui Fj;jpf; nfhLj;jhH. mepahak; nrhy;yf;$lhJ. ierPupahtpy; "Nwl;" Ngrkhl;lhHfs;. nfhLg;gij thq;fpf; nfhs;thHfs;!

 

,g;gb tho;f;ifapy; gbf;f Ntz;ba tplaq;fs; vj;jidNah ,Uf;fpd;wd. filrpg; gazk;tiu gbj;Jf; nfhz;Nl ,Ug;Nghk;.

 

kd;dpf;fTk; cq;fis twNlNuh tpkhd epiyaj;jpy; tpl;Ltpl;L vq;nfy;yhNkh mioj;Jg; Ngha;tpl;Nld;. FbtuTf;fhf tupirapy; fhj;jpUe;Njhk;.  

 

vq;fspy; MW NgH. ehiye;J mjpfhupfs;  rpd;df; rpd;df;  $LfSf;Fs; ,Ue;jhHfs;. ntspapy; epw;Fk; vq;fSf;F mtHfsJ Kfq;fisg; ghHf;f Kbatpy;iy. fpA+tupir nky;y nky;y efHe;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. gpwFjhd; ghHj;Njhk;. vy;NyhiuAk; Vw ,wq;fg; ghHj;J flitr; rPl;by; cs;s glKk; MSk;  rupahf ,Uf;fpwjh  vd;W kpff; ftdkhfg;  gupNrhjpj;J tpLfpwhHfs;. mtHfsJ Kfj;jpy; rpupg;igNa fhNzhk;. kpfr; rPuparhf vy;NyhUk;  Kfj;ij itj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;.  gpwFjhd; mjw;fhd fhuzk; Gupe;jJ.

 

ahuhtJ rpIV csthspfs; ehl;Lf;Fs; GFe;J tpLthHfNsh vd;w mr;rj;jpy; Ml;fis jPtpukhf Nrhjpf;fpwhHfs; vd;w cz;ikia. FbtuT mjpfhupfs;jhd; ,g;gbnad;why; Rq;f  mjpfhupfSk;  ngl;bfis mtpl;Lf; nfhl;b ftdkhf Nrhjid NghLfpwhHfs;.  ,jw;Ff; fhuzk; Nghij kUe;ij ahuhtJ flj;jp tUfpwhHfsh vd;w gak;. (tsUk;)