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,uz;L Ehy;fSf;F kWtho;T!

 ef;fPud;

(fdlh fe;jRthkp Nfhtpypy; rpwg;ghf ele;Njwpa ,aw;wkpo; NghjfhrpupaH r. tapj;jpaypq;fgps;is Ehw;whz;L tpohgw;wpa jpwdha;T)

kf;fSf;Fkl;Lky;y kWtho;T> Ehy;fSf;Fk; kW tho;T nfhLf;fyhk;. gj;njhd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;bd; ,Wjpapy;  Vl;Lr;  Rtbfspy; nry;yupj;Jg; Ngha;f;fple;j rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fis CH Cuhfj; Njb miye;J mr;Rthfdk; Vw;wp mtw;Wf;F kWtho;T nfhLj;jtHfs; ,UtH.

xUtH jkpo;j; jhj;jh  vd;W vy;NyhuhYk; nry;ykhf miof;fg;gLk; jpU. c.Nt.RthkpehjH. kw;wtH jpU. rp.it. jhNkhjudhH (1832-1901). jpU. rhkpehjH jkpOf;F Mw;wpa gzpf;fhf mtH ngupJk; kfpikg; gLj;jg;gl;Ls;shH. jpU. jhNkhjudhHgw;wp mt;thW $wKbahJ.  mtuJ gzp  Flj;jpy;  ,l;l tpsf;fhfNt ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. jpU.  jhNkhjudhH  jdJ tho;ehspy; gjpg;gpj;j Ehy;fs; gpd;tUkhW>

 

ePjp newp tpsf;fk;                            1854

njhy; Nrdhtiuak;                           1868

tPuNrhopak; ngUe;NjtdhH ciuAld;          1881

,iwadhH fstpay;                           1883

njhy;nghUs; (er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH)                 1885

fypj;njhif                                  1887

,yf;fztpsf;fk;                             1889

#shkzp                                    1889

njhy; vOj;jjpfhuk;                            1891

njhy; nrhy; (er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH)                  1892

 

,tw;wpy; ""fw;NwhH Vw;Wk; fypj;njhif""g; gjpg;Ng mtUf;Fg; Gfioj; Njbf; nfhLj;jJ.

nry;yupj;Jg;Nghd Vl;Lr; Rtbfisj; Njbg; gpbj;J mtw;iwg; gjpg;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Mir jhNkhjudhUf;F vg;gb te;jJ? mjid mtNu tpsf;FfpwhH.

""ey;y jkpo; Ehy;fSf;F te;j tpjpiaAk; ifnaOj;Jg; gpujpfSf;F te;j fjpiaAk; mit mile;jpUf;Fk; ];jpjpiaAk; ghHj;Jr; rfpf;f khl;lhik xd;Nw vd;id ,j;njhopypy; typg;gJ.

""vd; rpW gpuhaj;jpy; vdJ je;ijahH vdf;Ff; fw;gpj;j Ehy;fs; ,g;NghJ ehnlq;Fk; NjbAk; mfg;gltpy;iy. xl;bj; jg;gpapUf;Fk; Gj;jfq;fSk; nfl;Lr; rpije;jpUf;Fk; jiyikia njhl;Lg; ghHj;jhyd;Nwh njupatUk;. VnlLf;Fk; NghJ Xuk; nrhupfpwJ. fl;L mtpo;f;Fk; NghJ ,jop KupfpwJ. xw;iw Gul;Lk; NghJ Jz;L Jz;lha;g; gwf;fpwJ. ,dp vOj;Jf;fNsh vd;why; thYk; jiyAkpd;wp ehYGwKk; ghzf;fyg;ig kWj;J kWj;J cOJ fplf;fpwJ.""

mopAe;jWthapy; ,Ue;j rq;f Ehy;fis rhkpehjH> jhNkhjudhH Nghd;NwhH kPl;Lj;juhjpUe;jhy; jkpoHfSf;Fj; jq;fs; tuyhWgw;wpAk;> ehfupfr; rpwg;Gg;gw;wpg; NgRtjw;Fk; xd;Wk; ,Ue;jpuhJ.

mg;gb ,Ue;Jk; jkpoHfs; ePUf;Fk; neUg;Gf;Fk; vz;zpwe;j Ehy;fisg; gypnfhLj;Js;shHfs;. mjw;F xU ePz;l gl;baNy ,Uf;fpwJ.

Mbg;ngUf;fd;W fhtpupapy; VLfis vwpe;jhy; Nghw ,lj;Jf;Fg; Gz;zpak; vd;W vj;jHfs; nrhy;ypa Ngr;ir ek;gp tPl;by; ,Ue;j Xiyr; Rtbfis Mw;wpy; vwpe;j ,opj;jtha;j; jkpoHfs; VuhskhNdhH vq;fSf;Fs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

,d;DnkhU rhuhH rkaf; fho;GzHr;rp fhuzkhf xUtH Ehiy kw;wtH mopj;jhHfs;. gy gTj;j> rkz Ehy;fs; gpw;fhyj;jpy; irtrkaj;jtHfshy; mopf;fg;gl;ld.

Ik;ngUq; fhg;gpaq;fspy; xd;whd tisahgjp ,d;W ,y;iy. mjd; Vl;Lg; gbia jpUthtLJiw MjPd Ehyfj;jpy; mq;F NguhrpupaH Re;juk;gps;is mtHfsplk; jkpo; gbj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j rhkpehjH fz;bUf;fpwhH. mg;NghJ mtUf;F mjd; mUik njupatpy;iy. gpd;dH rq;f Ehy;fisg; gjpg;gpf;f Muk;gpj;jNghJ me;j Vl;Lr; Rtbiaj; Njb mq;F NghdhH. Mdhy; me;jr; Rtb mq;F ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

Nkw;F ehl;ltHfs; vq;fs; kz;izg; gpbj;J vq;fis mbikg;gLj;jp Mz;lhHfs; vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;. Mdhy; mtHfs;  te;jgpd;dHjhd;  fljhrpapy; ikapy; vOJk; tof;fk; te;jJ. mr;Rae;jpuk; gof;fj;jpy; te;jJ. ,e;jf; fUtpfs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd;why; ,d;W xU Xiyr; Rtb$l kpQ;rpapUe;jpUf;Fkh vd;gJ Iag;ghL.

jkpoHfSf;F Ehy;fisj; Njbg;gpbj;Jg; Nghw;wpg; ghJfhf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w czHT FiwthfNt ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. ,g;NghJ $l vz;zpg; gj;Jg; Gj;jfq;fs; (ghlg; Gj;jfq;fs; ePq;fhyhf!) cs;s jkpo; tPl;ilg; ghHg;gJ fbdk;. mjpYk; tPl;by; xU Ehyfk; vd;W itj;jpUg;NghH njhifia tpuy;tpl;L vz;zptplyhk;. cLg;Gf;Fk; eiff;Fk; nrytopf;Fk; njhifapy; Ehwpy; xU  gq;FjhDk; Ehy;fSf;F ehk; nrytopg;gjpy;iy.

fle;j Nk jpq;fs; 4k; ehs; ty;it ,aw;wkpo; NghjfhrpupaH R.tapj;jpaypq;fgps;is mtHfspd; Ehw;whz;L tpoh kpfr; rpwg;ghf fdlh fe;jRthkp Mya jpUkz muq;fpy; ele;NjwpaJ.

,e;j tpohtpd;NghJ ,uz;L Ehy;fs; ntspaplg;gl;ld. xd;W ""tahtpshd; RNjrehl;ba kNdrH nk];. f. NtYg;gps;is vd;gtuhwpaw;wg;gl;L  jkJ [arwP rhujh gPNle;jpu rhiyapy; 1918y; Kj;jpufuzQ; nra;tpf;fg;gl;l aho;g;ghz itgt nfsKjp""(Ehypy; nrhy;yg;gl;bUg;gij mg;gbNa nfhLj;Js;Nsd;).

 kw;wJ ty;it ,aw;wkpo;g; NghjfhrpupaH r.tapj;jpaypq;fgps;is  mtHfs; nra;j fe;juyq;fhu ciu. fe;juyq;fhuk; fUizf;NfhH mUzfpupehjuhy; ghlg;ngw;wJ vd;gJ njupe;jNj.

aho;g;ghz itgt nfsKjp 1918k; Mz;L gjpf;fg;gl;l gpd;dH  mjid ahUk; kPs;gjpT nra;atpy;iy. mg;gb xU Ehy; ,Ug;gNj gyUf;Fj; njupahky; ,Ue;jJ. fhynts;sj;jpy; mope;Jnfhz;bUe;j  me;j   Ehypd; xU  gioa gb vg;gbNah nghd;. rptFkhud; ifapy; fpilf;f> mjid  ty;ntl;bj;Jiw Mtzf; fhg;gf epWtdH ty;it. e. eFyrpfhkzp mtHfSf;Ff; nfhLj;Jjt me;j Ehiy mtH kWgjpg;Gr; nra;J ntspapl;Ls;shH.

""Ehiy kWgjpg;Gr; nra;J ntspapl;Ls;shH"" vd;W ehd; Rygkhf nrhy;yp tpl;lhYk; mjw;fhf eFyrpfhkzp ,uT gfy; vd;W ghuhJ  kpfTk; ghLgl;L> fUkNk fz;zhapUe;J mjid ntspapl;Ls;shH vd;gNj  cz;ikahFk;.  %y Ehiy ehd; ghHj;jNghJ gf;fq;fs; rpije;J ifNahL te;Jnfhz;bUe;jd. ,ij vg;gb kdpjH kPs; gjpg;Gr; nra;ag;NghfpwhH vd;W vdf;Fs;Ns epidj;jJz;L.

,g;NghJ ""fz;ldf; fPwf; fy;ybahd;"" vd;Wk; ""MR ftp fy;yb NtYg;gps;is""(1860-1944) vd;Wk; Nghw;wg;gl;l EhyhrpupaH vOjpa ""aho;g'ghz itgt nfsKjp""ia mofhf kWgjpg;Gr; nra;J ntspapl;ljd; %yk; jpU.eFyrpfhkzp jkpo; nkhopf;F ey;y njhz;bidr; nra;Js;shH.

tpoh Nkilapy; Ngrpa mj;jid NgUk; mtuJ gzpia thdshtg; Gfo;e;J NgrpdhHfs;. me;jg; Nghw;WjYf;Fk; ghuhl;LjYf;Fk; mtH Kw;wpYk;  jFjpAilatH vd;gjpy; ahUf;Fk; khw;Wf; fUj;J ,Uf;f KbahJ.

fy;yb Ntyd; nfhLj;J itj;jtH. Ke;Ehw;W Kg;gj;J ,uz;L gf;fq;fs; nfhz;l jdJ Ehypy; ty;ntl;bj;Jiwgw;wpAk;> mq;F FbapUe;j kf;fisg; gw;wpAk;  Mq;fhq;F  (gf;fq;fs; 66>67> 177>178>179) Fwpg;gpl;L itj;j fhuzj;jhNyNa "aho;g;ghz itgt nfsKjp"" kW gpwg;G vLj;Js;sjJ. ,y;yhtpl;lhy; ,e;j tuyhw;W Ehy; ,aw;if va;jpapUf;Fk;! Ehyhrpupaupd; re;jjpapdUf;Nf ,g;gb xU  Ehy; ,Uf;Fk; rq;fjp ,g;NghJjhd; njupate;Js;sJ!  

aho;g;ghz itgt nfsKjp Nghyy;yhJ fe;juyq;fhy %yKk;; ciuAk; %d;whtJ gjpg;ghf ntspte;Js;sJ. Kjy; gjpg;gpd; fhyk; njupatpy;iy. ,uz;lhk; gjpg;G 1912k; Mz;L ntspte;jJ. vdNt %d;whtJ gjpg;G 89 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J ntspte;Js;sJ.  

ty;itapy; ,aw;wkpo;g; NghjfhrupaH gpwe;j fhuzj;jhNyh vd;dNth  mtiug;gw;wpa epidTfs; mt;tg;NghJ kPl;fg;gl;L te;Js;sJ. ey;YhH ehtyiug;gw;wp mwpe;jtHfSf;F ty;it  tapj;jpaypq;fgps;is epidTk; $lNt tUk;.  ,jw;F ,uz;L fhuzq;fs; cz;L.

xd;W MWKfehtUk; tapj;jpaypq;fgps;isAk; rk fhyj;jtHfs;. ,uz;L ,tHfs; ,UtUk; jkpOk; irt rkaKk; gpwnkhop> rka gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;Gf; fhuzkhf mope;njhope;J NghfhJ fhg;ghw;wg; ghLgl;ltHfs;.

,UtUf;Fk; ,ilapy; 'rhjp'gw;wp khWgl;l fUj;J ,Ue;jhYk; mJ mtHfsJ nkhop> rkag; gzpf;Fj; jilahf ,Ue;jjpy;iy.

,Ue;Jk; ehtyH kPJ ty;itthrpfs; fLq; Nfhgj;jpy; ,Ue;jhHfs;  vd;gJ vd;dNth cz;ikjhd;.  mWgJf; filrpapy; MWKf ehtyupd; ntz;fyr; rpiyia nfhOk;gpy; ,Ue;J aho;g;ghzk; nfhz;Lte;J mjid CH Cuhf  CHtykhff; nfhz;L jpupe;jNghJ ehtyuhy; ty;itf;Fs; GfKbatpy;iy!  fy;nywp gykhf ,Ue;jjhy; njhz;lkhdhw;NwhL ehtyH CHtyk; jpUk;gpr; nrd;Wtpl;lJ. me;jr; rpiy ey;YhH njw;F tPjpapy; epWtg;gl;lJ.  (njhlUk;)

 

 

 

 

 

 

aho;g;ghzj;ijg; glk; gpbj;Jf; fhl;Lk; nfsKjp!

(2)

ef;fPud;

 (fdlh fe;jRthkp Nfhtpypy; Nk 4k; ehs; rpwg;ghf ele;Njwpa ,aw;wkpo; NghjfhrpupaH r. tapj;jpaypq;fgps;is Ehw;whz;L tpohgw;wpa jpwdha;T. ,jd; njhlf;fj;ij http://nakeeran.tripod.com/literature.htm  ,iza jsj;jpy; gbf;fyhk;)

ey;YhH ehtyupd; rkag; gzp Nghw;wg;gLtJNghy mtuJ jkpo;g; gzp Vw;wpg; Nghw;wg;gLtjpy;iy. Vuhskhd Vl;Lr; Rtbfisj; Njb vLj;J> Jhrp Jilj;Jg; gjpg;gpj;jhH.  gy Ehy;fSf;F ciu vOjpdhH.  mtuJ ez;gHfs;> khzhf;fHfs; vOjpa Ehy;fisAk; gupNrhjpj;Jg; gjpg;gpj;jhH. my;yJ gjpg;gpf;f cjtpdhH. ehtyuJ ciog;ghy; ntspte;j Ehy;fSf;F mstpy;iy.

 ed;Dhy; tpUj;jpAiu

ed;Dhy; fhz;bifAiu

ieljTiu

#lhkzp epfz;Liu

jpUKUfhw;Wg;gil ciu

,yf;fzf; nfhj;J

jpUtpisahlw Guhzk;

rpt G+rhtpjp

ghy ghlk; (1.2.3.4)

Mj;jp#b ciu

nfhd;iw Nte;jd; ciu

kUJhue;jhjpAiu

Nfhapw;Guhz ciu

irt rkanewp ciu

fe;jGuhzk;

ngupaGuhzk; (ciueil)

jpUf;Fws; (gupNkyofH ciu)

jpUf;NfhitahUiu

njhy;fhg;gpak;

rTe;jupa yfup

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ghujk;

nfhiy kWj;jy;

ituhf;fpa jPgk;

ituhf;fpa rjfk;

jpUTe;jpahH

jhAkhdt Rthkpfs; ghly;fs;

ehtyH rhjpiaf; nfl;bahfg; gpbj;jtH vd;W mtH  kPJ tPrg;gLk; Fw;wr;rhl;L tYtw;wJ. nghUj;jkw;wJ. ehtyiuf; Fiw $WNthH mtiu tpl;L tpl;L rpthfkq;fisf; Fiw $wNtz;Lk;. fhuzk; rpthfkq;fs;jhd; ahH ahH jpUf;Nfhapy;fSf;Fs; Nghfyhk;> ahH ahH Nghff; $lhJ vd tiuaiwe;Js;sJ. ehtyH Mfkj;jpd; kPJ mstw;w gf;jp  itj;jpUe;jhH. vdNt jPz;lhik ghuhl;bdhH.  Mfk tpjpg;gbNa irthyaq;fspy; G+ir Kjypad eilngw Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy; gpbthjkhf ,Ue;jhH. mjw;fhfNt rpt G+rhtpjp vd;w Ehiy vOjpdhH. rpW nja;t topghl;ilf; fz;bj;jhH. fz;zfp topghl;ilf; fz;bj;J ""nrl;br;rp kfSf;Ff; Nfhtpyh"" vd;W fhl;lkhff; Nfl;lhH!  Mfk tpjpg;gb G+ir  nra;ahj mHr;rfHfisf; fbe;J nfhz;lhH. mtHfs; ifahy; jpUePW thq;fpg; G+Rtij kWj;jhH.

xd;iwg; Gupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ehtyH xU r%f rPHjpUj;jthjp my;y. mjw;F mtUf;F Neuk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. epidg;Gk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. gpw rka> nkhop> gz;ghL ,tw;wpd;  gilnaLg;gpy; ,Ue;J jkpopdj;ijf; fhg;ghw;WtNj mtuJ xNu Nehf;fkhfTk; cldbf; Fwpf;NfhshfTk; ,Ue;jJ. mjdhy; taypy; cs;s fisiag;gw;wpf; ftiyg;glhJ gurka nts;sk; cs;Ns tuhJ irtrkak; vd;w taYf;F tuk;G fl;bdhH. ,jidj; jtnwd;W nrhy;y KbahJ. fhyj;jpd; fl;lhak;.

ehtyH> jhNkhjudhH> tpGyhde;j mbfs; jq;fs; jkpo;g; gzpahy; jkpofj;jpy; <oj; jkpoHfSf;F Gfo; NrHj;jtHfs;. jkpo;ehl;Lj;  jkpoHfshy; ghuhl;lg; gl;ltHfs;. mz;zhkiyg; gy;fiyf; fofj;jpd;  jkpo;j;Jiwg; NguhrpupaH gjtp tpGyhde;jH mbfSf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ vq;fSf;F ngUikjUk; nrayhFk;.

ey;iyefH ehtyiug;gw;wpAk;> mtuJ je;ijahH fe;jg;G> ghl;ldhH G+jj;jk;gp KjypahH gw;wpAk; (gf;fk; 222-223) nfsKjp EhyhrpupaH tpupthf vOjpAs;shH. gpd;dH jdpNa ehtyiug;gw;wp (gf;fk; 291-292) vOjpAs;shH.  ehtyiug;gw;wp EhyhrpupaH vOjpapUg;gjd; xU gFjpia mjd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; fUjp mg;gbNa jUfpNwd;.

 

"",f; fhyj;jpy; aho;g;ghzj;jpNy nre;jkpo;g; ghi\ tpUj;jpahf tpNr\ Ka w;rp nra;jtH MWKfehtyuhk;. aho;g;ghzk; ey;YhupNy> fhHfhj;j NtshsH kugpNy> ghz;bkotH FbapNy> murhl;rpahuplk; Muhr;rp cj;jpNahfj;jpy; mkHe;jpUe;j fe;jg;gps;is vd;gtUf;Fg; Gj;jpuuha; 1822 k; Mz;L khHfop kP 18c gpwe;j ,tH> Ie;J tarpNy tpj;jpahuk;gQ;nra;J Muk;g jkpo;f;fy;tp fw;W> NtyhAjKjypahH> NrdhjpuhaKjypahH> rutzKj;Jg;GytH vd;gtHfsplk; ,yf;fz ,yf;fpaq;fisf; frlwf;fw;Wj;> jkpo;g; ghi\apy; tpNr\ ghz;bj;jpak; mile;J> rk];fpUjj;jpYk; gapw;rpaile;J> cny];ypad;kp\d; ghlrhiyapy; (,d;iwa aho;g;ghzk; kj;jpa fy;Yhup) Mq;fpy ghi\Ak; fw;W> 20 tajpy; mg;ghlrhiyj; jiytuhd gPw;wH NgHrpty; NjrpfUf;Fj; jkpo;g;gz;bjuhfp NtjhfknkhopngaHg;gpy; mtUf;F ey;y cgNahfkhfp mtUld; $br; nrd;idGupf;Fr; nrd;W jpUk;gp> 1845k; Mz;L tiuapYk; mtUf;Fj; Jiznra;J mg;ghy; mtuJ Ntiyia tpl;L nre;jkpo;g; ghi\iag; gupghypf;fTk; irtrkaj;ij tsHf;fTk; fUj;Jl; nfhz;L Kg;gj;jpuz;L tUlq;fsha; tpNr\ Kaw;rpfs; Gupe;J 1879k; Mz;L 5 c NjftpNahfkhdhH. ,tH nre;jkpo;g; gupghydj;Jf;F cjtpaha; tz;zhHgz;izapYk;> rpjk;guj;jpYk; ,uz;L irtg;gpufhrtpj;jpahyq;fis ];jhgpj;J> mNdf khzhf;fUf;Fr; nre;jkpo;f; fy;tpiaf; fw;gpf;fNtz;ba xOq;F nra;J gy khzhf;fUf;F ,yf;fz ,yf;fpaq;fisf; fw;gpj;Jk;> fe;jGuhzk; ghujk; NrJguhzk;> gpuNahftpNtfciu> jpUts;StH gupNkyofUiu> jpUf;NfhitAiu> njhy;fhg;gpak; NrdhtiuaUiu> ed;Dhw; fhz;bifAiu> tpUj;jpAiu> epfz;L #lhkzpAiu> ,yf;fzf;nfhj;J> ,yf;fztpsf;fr; #whtsp Nfhapw;GuhzTiu> ,yf;fzr; RUf;fk;> jpUtpisahlw; Guhz trdk;> jUf;frq;fpufk; Kjyhk; mWgJf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l Gj;jfq;fis jpUj;jp mr;rpl;Lg; gpuRupj;J ntspg;gLj;jpdH."" 

jdJ 20tJ mfitapy; ghlrhiyj; jiytuhd gPw;wH NgHrpty; NjrpfUf;F MWKf ehtyH jkpo;g;gz;bjuhfp fpwpj;Jt Ntjhfk nkhopngaHg;gpy; mtUf;F cjtpdhH vd;gijg; gbf;f kdJf;F kfpo;r;rpahf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,J njupe;j nra;jp vd;whYk; nfsKjp MrpupaH nrhy;Yk;NghJ kfpo;r;rpahf ,Uf;fpwJ.

aho;g;ghz itgt nfsKjpapd; rpwg;G vd;dntd;why; Fiwe;jJ ,uz;L Ehw;whz;L fhy tuyhw;iw vOj;J tbtj;jpy; EhyhrpupaH gjpT nra;J itj;J tUq;fhy  re;jjpapdUf;F tpl;Lg; NghdJjhd;.

Ehypd; ciueil ngUk;ghYk; Ngr;Rj; jkpopy; ,Uf;fpwJ. tlnkhop kw;Wk; Mq;fpyr; nrhw;fs; mjpfsT fhzg;gLfpwJ.  ""eil rupj;jpuj;Jf;Nfw;w ,ytpj eilapy; vOjg;gltpy;iy"" vd;gij EhyhrpupaH mlf;fj;NjhL xg;Gf;nfhs;fpwhH.  

,Ue;Jk;  md;iwa jkpo;  ciueilia thrpf;Fk;NghJ  mjpYk; xU Rit ,Uf;fpwJ. xU fhyj;jpy; ngUtof;fpy; ,Ue;J ,g;NghJ tof;nfhope;J Nghd my;yJ Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;Fk; nrhw;fs; Ehy; KOJk; Mq;fhq;Nf fhzg;gLfpwJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf 'rpWg;gk;' 'rpzp' 'rz;ilrs;S' 'fpykha;g; Ngha;tpl;ld' 'rl;lk;gp' 'ehl;lhz;ik' 'tkprk;' 'kuG'  'Fyk;' 'Fb'  'Xa;' 'kl;bly;' 'kiyj;jy;' 'fl;lhf;fhyp' 'rl;nld' 'rk;ge;jk;' 'kd;wy;' (jpUkzk;) 'epyk;Gyk;' 'ifkhr;R' (tpyq;F) 'gutzp' 'fhfjhypak;' (fhfk; ,Uf;fg; gdk;gok; tpOtJNghy;) 'ts;sd;ik' 'khe;jPupfk;' 'fpQ;rpj;Jk;' 'tupir' Nghd;w nrhw;fisr; nrhy;yyhk;.

nfsKjp aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; tuyhw;iw xU NfhHitahf> Mz;L thupahf jFe;j rhd;WfNshL vOjpa tuyhw;W Ehy; vd;W vjpHghHj;J mjidg; gbf;f Kide;jhy; gbg;NghH Vkhw;wk; milthHfs;. nkhj;jk; 332 gf;fq;fq;fs; (,lg;ngaHfs; gw;wp vOjg;gl;l NkYk; 131 gf;fq;fs; kPs; gjpg;gpy; ,lk;ngwtpy;iy) nfhz;l Ehy; Jz;L Jz;lhf vOjg;gl;bUf;fpwJ. EhYf;F mj;jpahaq;fs; nfhLgltpy;iy. Kjy; 158g; gf;fq;fspy;  NghHj;Jf;NfaH> xy;yhe;jH fhyj;jpy; aho;g;ghzj;jpy; epytpa Ml;rpKiw> r%ff; fl;likg;G> nghUs;epiy> rkaepiy gw;wp   kpfTk; tpgukhf vLj;Jr; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ.

mLj;j 102 gf;fq;fspy; aho;g;ghzj;jpy; ""Fyk;> gpuGj;Jtk;> fy;tp> nry;tk;> cj;jpNahfk;> ehl;lhz;ik> Fzr;rpwg;G> mbik Fbik> tz;ik> Gj;jp> NeHik"" Nghd;w rpwg;Gf;fs; tha;e;j KjypkhHfs;> GytHfs;> tzpfHfs;  Nghd;wtHfsJ tkpr tuyhW RUf;fkhfj; jug;gl;Ls;sJ. ,d;Dk; gyuJ juTfs; fhyk; fle;J fpilj;jhy; Ehypy; NrHf;f KbahJ Nghapw;W vd;W EhyhrpupaNu Fwpj;Js;shH. jq;fsJ Ntiuj; Njl tpUk;GNthUf;F me;jf; Fwpg;Gf;fs; gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;Fk;.

gf;fk; 261 njhlq;fp KbTtiu Mq;fpNyaH Ml;rpapy; aho;g;ghzk; fy;tp tsHr;rp> ngz;fy;tp tpUj;jp> jkpo;f; fy;tp tsHr;rp> kUj;Jt trjp> gpuahz trjp> gz;lkhw;W trjp> Ntshz;ik tpUj;jp tpupj;J vOjg;gl;Ls;sd> MrpupaH guq;fpaH (NghHj;Jf;NfaH) xy;yhe;jH Ml;rpfis Mq;fpy Ml;rpNahL xg;gpl;L vOJk;NghJ Mq;fpy Ml;rpia kpfTk; rpyhfpj;J vOjpapUf;fpwhH!

nghJthf tuyhW vd;why; murHfs;> NghHfs;> gilnaLg;Gf;fs; gw;wpa gjpthfNt ,Uf;Fk;. mijAk; gz;ila jkpoHfs; vd;d fhuzj;jhNyh xOq;fhf> njhlHr;rpahf Mz;Lthupahf vOjp itf;ftpy;iy. ,d;Dk; nrhy;yg; Nghdhy; tuyhWgw;wpa czHNt mtHfSf;F ,Uf;ftpy;iy. jkpoHfSf;F kl;Lky;y nghJthf ,e;jpaHfSf;Fk; ,e;j czHT ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

kfh mnyf;rhd;lH (fpK 356-fpK 323) vfpg;J> ghurPfk;> Mg;fdp];jhd;> ,e;jpah kPJ gilnaLj;Jr; nrd;wNghJ jd;NdhL muz;kid tuyhw;W MrpupaH fyp];jPd;]; ( Callisthenes of Olynthus)

vd;gtiu jd;NdhL $lNt $l;br; nrd;whH. mjdhy; me;jg; gilnaLg;igg;gw;wpa tpupthd jfty;fisg; gjpT nra;J itj;jpUf;fpwhH. ,d;Dk; fpNuf;f tuyhw;W MrpupaH nkf];jPd]; (fpK 340-fpK 282) mtHfis fpNuf;f murd; KjyhtJ nrYhf;f]; (Seleucus I)  jdJ ehl;Lj; JhJtuhf kTupa murd; re;jpuFg;jdJ muz;kidf;F mDg;gp itj;jhd;. nkf];jPd]; ,e;jpahtpd; gz;ghL> fyhrhuk;> rkak; gw;wp vOjpaitNa Nkw;Fyfk; ,e;jpahitg;gw;wp mwptjw;F cjtpahf ,Ue;jJ. mJkl;Lk; my;yhJ ,e;jpa tuyhw;iw vOJtjw;Fk; cjtpAs;sJ.

rpe;jidahsH Nrhf;fpwl;b];gw;wp vy;NyhUk; Nfs;tpg;gl;bg;ghHfs;. cyf tuyhw;wpy; kpfr; rpwe;j rpe;jidahsH. mtH Ehy; vJTk; vOjtpy;iy. Mdhy; mtuJ khzhf;fH gpsl;Nlh jdJ MrpupaH fw;gpj;jij> mtH Ngrpaij xd;Wtplhky; 15 njhFjpfspy; gjpj;Js;shH. Nrhf;fpwl;b]; gf;fj;J tPl;Lf;fhudplk; xU Nfhopf; FQ;irf; fld; thq;fpaijAk; mjid kwthky; jd;idr; rpiwapy; re;jpj;j jdJ ez;gd; fpupl;Nlhtplk; nrhy;ypaJk; gjpthfpAs;sJ.

Mdhy; ehNkh fpgp 13k; Ehw;whz;L njhlq;fp fpgp 17k; Ehw;whz;Ltiu ePbj;jpUe;j aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpak;gw;wpa tuyhw;iw xOq;fh vOjp itf;ftpy;iy! vOjp itj;j  guuhrNrfuDyh ,uhrKiw vd;w ,uz;L EhiyAk; njhiyj;J tpl;Nlhk;. ,e;j Ehy; ,uz;Lk; nfsKjp Ehy; MrpupaH fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. mtH Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s nkhj;jk; 63  JizEhy; gl;baypy; ,it ,uz;Lk; 3tJ 4tJ ,lj;jpy; cs;sd.  

nfsKjp Ehypd; xU rpwg;G mk;rk;> mJ rhjhuz kf;fspd; r%f> murpay;. rka> nghUshjhu epiyfisg; glk; gpbj;Jf; fhl;LfpwJ. ,J Nghw;wg;gl Ntz;ba xd;whFk;. (tsUk;)