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aho;g;ghzj;ij kPl;nlLj;j fpl;L!

 ef;fPud;

fpU~;zFkhH ahH vd;W njupAkh?

njupahJ!

rjhrptk; fpU~;zFkhH?

njupahJ!

fpl;Litj; njupAkh?

X njupANk!

ahH mtH? 
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    rpWtHfSf;F  mtH fpl;L khkh. eLj;ju tajpdUf;F  mtH   fpl;lz;zH.  taJ te;j KjpNahUf;F fpl;lH. ,af;fk; mtUf;F itj;j ngaH ntq;fpl;L. mJNt ehsiltpy; RUq;fp fpl;L vd MfpaJ.  

Rje;jpu jkpoPoj;jpd; Nghuhl;l tuyhW vOjg;gLk;NghJ jsgjp fpl;LTf;F xU KO mjpfhuk; xJf;fg;gLk;. jiytH gpughfuDf;F
mLj;jjhf jkpoPo kf;fsJ kdk; ftHe;j> neQ;rk; epiwe;j tPudhf fpl;L jpfo;fpwhH. 

aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpak; ehd;F Ehw;whz;L fhyk; (1215-1619) epiyj;jpUe;jJ. ,e;jf; fhy j;jpy; Mupar; rf;futHj;jpfs; vd;w gl;lg; ngaH jhq;fpa gj;njhd;gJ jkpo; murHfs; mjid Mz;lhHfs;. xU fhyj;jpy; Nfhl;il> fz;b rpq;fs ,uhr;rpaq;fistpl aho;g;ghz Mupa rf;futHj;jpfspd; ,uhr;rpak; kpf;f tYTs;sjhf tpsq;fpaJ.  Igpd;; gj;Jhj;jh  (Ibn Batutta)  vd;w muhgpa gazp ,yq;if te;jNghJ aho;g;ghz kd;dNd mtid rptndhsp ghjkiyiag; ghHf;f trjpfs; nra;J nfhLj;jhd;.  

aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; filrp kd;ddhd rq;fpyp Fkhuid 1619 Mk; Mz;L NghHj;Jf;NfaHfs; jiyefH ey;Yhupy; ele;j Nghupy; Njhw;fbj;J aho;g;ghz ,uhr;rpaj;ijf; ifg;gw;wpdhHfs;. mjd; gpd; xy;yhe;jH> Mq;fpNyaH  aho;;g;ghzj;ijg; gpbj;J Mz;lhHfs;> Mq;fpNyaH 1948Mk; Mz;L ntspNawpaNghJ  KO ,yq;ifiaAk;  rpq;fstH ifapy; nfhLj;Jtpl;L ntspNawpdhHfs;. ,t;thW rq;fpyp ths; Kidapy; ,oe;j  aho;g;ghzf; Flhehl;il Jg;ghf;fp Kidapy; kPl;nlLj;J jkpoH ,iwahz;ikia  epiyehl;ba nUik  jsgjp fpl;LitNa rhUk;.  

fpl;L xU XHkkhd Nghuhsp. mtuJ tPuk;> tpNtfk;> Ntfk;> Jzpr;ry;  kf;fspilNa gpukpg;ig Cl;baJ. vz;gJ Kw;gFjpapy; kf;fs; ,uhZtj;Jf;Fg; gae;J %iyapy; gJq;fp eLq;fp xLq;fp ,Ue;j fhyk;. 'Mkp Nfhl;ilapy; ,Ue;J ntspf;fpLwhdhk;" vd;w nra;jp fhw;wpy; te;jhy; NghJk;. fpl;L fhw;wpDk; Ntfkhfr; nrd;W ntspf;fpl;l ,uhZtj;ij kWgbAk; Nfhl;ilf;Fs; mbj;Jj; Juj;JthH. mg;gb mbj;Jj; Juj;J kl;Lk; Xakhl;lhH. gyhyp> ehtw;Fop> ty;ntl;bj;Jiw> gUj;jpj;Jiw> MidapwT ,g;gb ve;j Kfhkpy; ,Ue;J ,uhZtk; Gwg;gl;lhYk; fpl;L mq;F jdJ NghuhspfSld; epw;ghH. fpl;L fsj;jpy; epw;fpwhH vd;why; kf;fSf;F ,de;njupahj JzpT vq;fpUe;Njh te;JtpLk;.  

fpl;L fhl;rpf;F vspatuhf ,Ue;jhH. tPjpNahuj;jpy; ntw;wpiy  ghf;Fg;Nghl;Lf; Fjg;gpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; fpotHfNshL NrHe;J jhDk; ntw;wpiy Nghl;Lf; nfhs;thH. mtHfNshL ehl;L elg;Gf;fis myRthH.  

,e;jf; fhyj;jpy;jhd; fpl;L xU Rj;j tPud; vd;w gbkj;NjhL kf;fs; kdjpy; cyh tuj;   njhlq;fpdhH. fhf;fpr; rl;iliag; ghHj;jhNy
gae;J eLq;fpa kf;fSf;F fpl;L xU tpj;jpahrkhd> mjprakhd gpwtpahfj; njupe;jhH.  

rpd;d tl;lq;fs; fs;sd;-Nghyp]; tpisahl;Lf;fisf; iftpl;L fpl;Lkhkh - Mkp tpisahl;L tpisahl Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. fpl;Litg; Nghy mtHfs; ,Lg;gpYk; xU (Nghyp) kf;dk; 357 Row;Jg;ghf;fp!  

1987Mk; Mz;L tlkuhl;rpapy; ,uhZtj;Jld; ele;j rz;ilapy; fpl;L tpOg;Gz; gl;lhH. Gz;zhw rpy ehl;fs; vLj;jd. mg;NghJjhd; vjpupfshy; mtH kPJ Fz;L vwpe;J nfhiy nra;a Kaw;rp Nkw;nfhs;sg; gl;lJ. nra;jp Nfl;L kf;fs; mjpHr;rp mile;jhHfs;. fpl;Ltpd; capUf;F Mgj;jpy;iy vd;w nra;jp te;jgpd;dHjhd; kf;fs; epk;kjpahf %r;Rtpl;lhHfs;. ,Ue;Jk; Fz;L ntbg;gpy; fpl;L xU fhiy ,oe;jJ mtHfSf;Ff; ftiyia mspj;jJ.  

1971Mk; Mz;L gy;fiyf; fof EioTf;F mwpKfg; gLj;jg;gl;l jug;gLj;jYf;F gypahd gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd jkpo; khztHfspy;  fpl;LTk; xUtH. jug;gLj;jy; ,y;yhtpl;lhy; trjpahd FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;j mtH gbj;Jg;  gy;fiyf; fofk;  nrd;W gl;lk; ngw;W ntspNawp kw;wtHfisg; Nghy; VjhtJ mur gzpapy; mke;jpUg;ghH. my;yJ ntspehL nrd;wpUg;ghH. 

1979Mk; Mz;L njhlf;fj;jpy; fpl;L jd;id ,af;fj;jpy; ,izj;Jf; nfhz;lhH. mg;NghJ mtUf;F taJ 19 kl;LNk. ,af;fj;jpy; ,Ue;jtHfsJ njhif xU Ehw;Wf;F Nky; ,y;yhj fhyk;. ngUk;ghd;ikNahH jiytH gpwe;j Cuhd ty;ntl;bj;Jiwiar; NrHe;jtHfs;.  

1983Mk; Mz;L epuhAjghzpfshd  jkpoHfs; MAjghzpfshd rpq;fsf; fhilaHfshy; gykhf;fj; jhf;fg;gl;lhHfs;. capH ,og;G Vuhsk;. clik ,og;G nfhQ;reQ;rky;y. me;jf; fUg;G A+iy fpl;Ltpd; Md;khtpy; ngupa fPwiy  Vw;gLj;jpaJ.  mtH kdJf;Fs;Ns xU G+fk;gk;. gopf;Fg; gop thq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Ntfk; NkNyhq;fpaJ!   

mNj Mz;L fpl;L ,af;fj;jpd; jhf;Fjy; FOtpd; ,uz;lhtJ nghWg;ghsuhf jiytH gpughfudhy; epakpf;fg;gl;lhH. mLj;j Mz;L ,e;jpah nrd;W ,uhZtg; gapw;rpngw;Wj;   jpUk;gpdhH. 1984 ngg;utup 29>  aho;g;ghzf; FUefH rpq;fs ,uhZt Kfhk; mtH jiyikapy; nrd;w Nghuhspfshy; jhf;fpj; jfHf;fg;gl;lJ. 

1985,y; fpl;L aho;g;ghzf; Flhehl;bd; jsgjpahf epakpf;fg;gl;lhH. mNj Mz;L aho;g;ghzk; Nghyp]; epiyak; jhf;fp mopf;fg;gl;lJ. rpq;fs ,uhZtk; gbg;gbahf Kfhk;fSf;Fs; Klf;fg;gl;lJ. Gypfspd; Ml;rp aho;g;ghzj;jpy; cUthfpaJ. mjd; nghUshjhuk; kW rPuikf;fg;gl;lJ. cs;@H cw;gj;jp Cf;fptpf;fg;gl;lJ. rpWtHfsJ nghOJ Nghf;Ff;F G+q;fhf;fs; epWtg;gl;ld. njUf;$j;J> ehlfk;> tpy;Yg;ghl;L Nghd;w fiyfspd; %yk; tpLjiy czHT kf;fspilNa Cl;b  tsHf;fg;gl;lJ. Kjd;Kiwahf 'epjHrdk;' njhiyf;fhl;rp  ,aq;f Muk;gpj;jJ.  'fsj;jpy;' vd;w nra;jp ,jo; ntsptuj; njhlq;fpaJ.  

fpl;L aho;g;ghzf; Flhehl;bd; jsgjpahf ,Ue;j fhyj;jpNyNa NghHf;ifjpfshf gpbj;J itf;fg;gl;bUe;j rpq;fs ,uhZtj;jpdiu tpLtpf;f nfhOk;gpy; ,Ue;J te;j rpq;fs ,uhZt jsgjpfs; mtNuhL Ngr;R thHj;ij elhj;jpdhHfs;. fpl;Ljhd;  rpq;fs ,uhZt jsgjpfSld; ifFYf;fpf;  nfhz;l Kjy; Gypj; jsgjp.  

fpl;L gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy;  gbj;Jg; ngWk; gl;lj;ij tpl jpwe;jntsp cyfg; gs;spapy; gbj;J rfyfyh ty;ytd; vd;w gl;lj;ij thq;fpapUe;jhH.  jiytH gpughfudhy; Neubahf MAjg; gapw;rp ngw;w rpy tPuHfspy; fpl;LTk; xUtH. jiytiug; NghyNt FwpjtwhJ RLtjpy; kd;dd;. ey;y Nkilg; Ngr;rhsp. ,yf;fpathjp. vOj;jhsd;. XtpaH. glg;gpbg;Gf;fhud;. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf  nkj;jg; gbj;jtHfSk; kjpf;Fk; MSik mtuplk; ,Ue;jJ.  

1989 Mz;L Gypfs; - =yq;fh muRg; Ngr;R thHj;ij  njhlq;fpaJ. Ngr;R thHj;ijapy; fye;J nfhs;s nfhOk;G nrd;w fpl;L mq;fpUe;J itj;jpaj;Jf;fhf ,yz;ld; Ngha; NrHe;jhH. midj;Jyf tp.Gypfspd; nghWg;ghsuhf %d;W Mz;Lfs; fpl;L  gzpahw;wpdhH. mJ ,af;fj;ijg; nghWj;jstpy; xU nghw;fhyk;. fpl;Ltpd;  gd;Kfg;gl;l MSikf;F Nkw;Fyfk; fsk; mikj;Jf; nfhLj;jJ. mtuJ trPfuk; vy;NyhiuAk; ftHe;jJ. mtuJ epHthfj; jpwik ituk;Nghy; gspr;rpl;lJ. xt;nthU rpd;d tplaj;ijAk; Neubahff; ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;tJ mtuJ ghzpahFk;. tp.Gypfspd;  midj;Jyf nghWg;ghsH vd;w uPjpapy; ntspehl;L murpay; kw;Wk; ,uhrje;jpupfisr; re;jpj;J jkpo; kf;fsJ MAjg; Nghuhl;lj;Jf;F jhHkPf MjuT NjbdhH.   

gpupj;jhdpahtpy; njhlHe;J ,Uf;f Kbahj xU #o;epiy 1992 Mk; Mz;Lg; gpw;gFjpapy;  cUthfpaJ. Rtp]; ehl;Lf;Fg; gazg;gl;l fpl;L mq;fpUe;J jkpoPok; Nehf;fpa flw;gazj;ij Muk;gpj;jhH. mJjhd; mtuJ filrpg; gazk; vd;gJ mtUf;Nfh mtuJ NjhoHfSf;Nfh kw;w ahUf;FNkh mg;NghJ njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. 

midj;Jyff; flypy; fpl;L  'mfhj;' (Ahat) vd;w fg;gypy; gazk; nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpwhH vd;w nra;jpia ,e;jpa muR mwpe;J nfhz;lJ.  mtH Nkw;F ehLfs; jahupj;j mikjpj; jpl;lj;jpd; JhJtdhfg; gazk; nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpwhH vd;w nra;jpAk; ,e;jpahtpw;F Vw;fdNt njupe;jpUe;jJ. ,Ue;Jk; fpl;Ltpd; fg;giy ,ilkwpf;FkhW ,e;jpa muR flw;gilf;Ff; fl;lis ,l;lJ. 

1993 Mk; Mz;L 13k; ehs; fpl;Ltpd; fg;gy; ,e;jpahtpd; flw;giliar; rhHe;j ,uz;L ehrfhupf; fg;gy;fshy; midj;Jyff; flypy; itj;J Rw;wp tisf;fg;gl;lJ. fpl;L me;jr; nra;jpia njhiyj; njhlHG fUtpapd; %yk; tp.Gypfspd; midj;Jyfg; gzpkidf;F mwptpj;jhH. fg;gy; ,ilkwpf;fg;gl;l nra;jp cynfq;Fk; gutpaJ. ,e;jpah kTdk; rhjpj;jJ. mfj; fg;gy; nrd;idj; JiwKfj;Jf;F NeNu> ,e;;jpaf; fly; vy;iytiu nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. jsgJ fpl;LTk; mtuJ NghuhspfSk; ruz; milAkhW Nfl;fg;gl;ldH. ruz; mila kWj;jhy; mfj; jhf;fg;gl;L midtUk; ifJ nra;ag;gLtPHfs;. vjpHj;jhy; fg;gy; %o;fbf;fg;gLk; vd;W ,e;jpaf; flw;gil vr;rupj;jJ.   

fpl;Litf; ifJ nra;J uh[pt; fhe;jpapd; nfhiyf;F mtH nghWg;G vdf; Fw;wk;rhl;b mtiu ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;JtNj ,e;jpa murpd; je;jpukhf ,Ue;jJ. mNj Neuk; fpl;Lit capNuhL gpbf;f KbahJ vd;gJk; mtHfSf;Fj; njupe;jpUe;jJ. ruzhfjp vd;w thHj;ij Gypfspd; mfuhjpapy; ,y;yhj thHj;ij. tho;e;jhy; khdj;NjhL ,y;iyNay; tPukuzk; vd;gJ Gypfspd; jhuf ke;jpuk; vd;gJ cyfwpe;j nra;jp. 

jsgjp fpl;LTk; mtUld; gazk; nra;j xd;gJ NghuhspfSk; jq;fisj; jhq;fNs mopj;Jf; nfhz;L tq;ff; flypy; rq;fkkhdhHfs;! me;jr; nra;jp cyfk; tho; jkpo; kf;fs; jiyapy; ,bnad ,wq;fpaJ! tq;fkh fly; jPapdpy; nfhjpj;jJ! ""mNrhfr; rf;fuk;"" FUjpapy; Fspj;jJ! mfpk;irapd; mupr;Rtbia mwpKfk; nra;j ghujk; fpl;L kw;Wk; mtuJ NjhoHfsJ nre;ePH Fbj;J kfpo;e;jJ! 

,e;jpahtpd; tQ;rfj;Jf;F tpLjiyg; Gypfs; gypahdJ ,J %d;whtJ jlit.  Kjw; gyp jpahfp jpyPgd;. ,uz;lhtJ gyp ,e;jpahtpd; kj;jpaj;ij ek;gp flw;gazk; nra;j jsgjpfs; Fkug;gh-GNye;jpud; cl;gl;l 17 tp.Gypfis  =yq;fh flw;gil ifJ nra;aJ gyhypapy; ,Ue;j ,e;jpa ,uhZtj;jplk; xg;gilj;jJ. mtHfisf; nfhOk;Gf;F nfhz;L nry;y Kaw;rpj;jNghJ vy;NyhUk; eQ;rUe;jp jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;. %d;whtJ gyp tq;ff; flypy; fpl;LTk; mtuJ xd;gJ NjhoHfSk;.  

tpLjiy vd;gJ Rk;kh nfhz;L te;J jUtjw;F mJ Rf;Fky;y kpsFky;y vd;gJ cz;ikjhd;. mjw;F xU tpiy ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy; ,e;jpahtpd; tQ;rfj;jpw;F> #o;r;rpf;F> fhl;bf;nfhLg;gpw;Fg; gypNghd fpl;L> Fl;b=> jpyPgd;> Fkug;gh> GNye;jpud; Nghd;w Nghuhspfs;> jsgjpfs; ,tHfspd; epidT  jkpoPo Njrj;jpd; Mo;kdjpy; Mokhd tLthf> Jilf;f Kbahj fiwahfg; gjpe;j tuyhw;Wf; fhak; fhyk; fhykhf mopahJ ,Uf;Fk;! 

ty;itf; fiunaOe;j Gay; Xa;e;jNjh?

tz;zj; jkpoPo kiy rupe;jNjh?

tq;ff; fly; kbapy; Gyp jtpj;jNjh?

tQ;rfuhy; vq;fs; Fapy; kbe;jNjh?

(ed;wp: epidf;fg;gl Ntz;batHfs;)