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vkJ kuGtopj; jhafj;ij ,og;Nghkh?  my;yJ   Nghuhbg; kPog; ngWNthkh?

(ef;fPud;)

jkpoPoj; jpUehl;bd; jiyefuhd jpUNfhzkiy rkhjhd efukhfg; gpufldk; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. ,uz;lhapuk; (2000)Mz;il mfpyTyf rkhjhd Mz;lhf If;fpa ehLfs; mit gpufldg; gLj;jpAs;sJ. ,jid xl;b 87 cyf ehLfspd; efuq;fs; rkhjhd efuq;fshf  A+nd];Nfh Kd;nkhope;Js;sJ.  

cUrpahtpd; nkh];ft;> tpal;ehkpd; `Ndha;> ag;ghdpd; `pNuhrpkh> ,];Nuypd; n[&ryk;> nygdhtpd; ngap&l; Nghd;W jkpoPoj;jpy; jpUNfhzkiy rkhjhd efukhf A+ne];Nfhtpdhy; Kd;nkhopag; gl;Ls;sJ. 

jpUNfhzkiy efupd; rkhjhd Jtf;f tpoh Nghd thuk; kpfTk; 'Nfhyhfykhff;' nfhz;lhlg;gl;Ls;sJ. 

md;GtopGuk; re;jpapy; vOjg;gl;l  myq;fhu tisit jfty; njhiyj; njhlHG mikr;rH kq;fs rkutPu  jpiu ePf;fk; nra;J itj;jpUf;fpwhH. mj;NjhL jpUkiyf; flw;fiuapy; mikr;rH kq;fs rkutPu 'rkhjhd efH epidTr; rpd;dk;' xd;iw epWTtjw;fhd mbf;fy;iyAk;  ehl;bAs;shH. 

rkhjhd efH Jtf;ftpoh jpUNfhzkiy Gdpj kupahs; fy;Yhupapy; ele;NjwpapUf;fpwJ. ,e;j tpohtpy; ciuahw;wpa mikr;rH kq;fs rkutPu jpUNfhzkiyia tHj;jfj; JiwKfkhf mgptpUj;jp nra;aj; jpl;lkpl;L nray;gl;LtUtjhff; Fwpg;gpl;lhH. Muk;gf;fl;lkhf ag;ghd; cjtpAld; jpUNfhzkiy JiwKf mgptpUj;jpf;nfd 150 kpy;ypad; (15Nfhb)&ghia xJf;fpAs;sjhf mikr;rH kq;fs rkutPu NkYk; njuptpj;jhH. 

"",yq;ifapy; %d;W ,dq;fs; thOk; jpUNfhzkiy rkhjhd efukhf gpufldg;gLj;jg; gl;Ls;sJ. vkJ  murhq;fk; epue;ju rkhjhdj;ij ,e;j ehl;by; Vw;gLj;Jtjw;F cWjpAld; cioj;J tUfpwJ. jpUNfhzkiy ,yq;ifapy; rkhjhdj;ijg; NgZk; ""khjpup"" efukhf khWk;. ,yq;ifapd; tHj;jf efuhf jpUNfhzkiy efuk; mgptpUj;jp nra;ag;gLk;"" ,g;gb mikr;rH kq;fs rkutPu tapw;Wg; gps;is fPNo eOtp tpOkhW me;j tpohtpy;  NgrpapUf;fpwhH. 

rdhjpgjp rq;jpupfh FkhuzJq;fh ,e;j Jtf;f tpohitnahl;b xU tho;j;Jr; nra;jp mDg;gpapUe;jhH. me;jr; nra;jpia tl-fpof;F khfhz MSeH mNrhfh n[atHj;jd thrpj;jhH. me;jr; nra;jpapy; Fwpg;gplg; gl;bUg;gjhtJ -  

"" jpUNfhzkiyia rkhjhd efuhfg; gpufldk; nra;Ak;   A+nd];Nfhtpd; Kd;nkhopit vdJ murhq;fk; kpf kfpo;r;rpAld; Vw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. ehl;by; rkhjhdk;> ,ay;G epiyik  Vw;gLj;j ehk; cWjp G+z;L nray;gl;L   tUfpwJ.  mjpy; ehk; ntw;wpailNthk; vd;gjpy; vkf;F ek;gpf;if ,Uf;fpwJ."" 

jpUNfhzkiy efiu rkhjhd efuhfg; gpufldg; gLj;j A+nd];Nfh cz;ikahf  jd;ghl;by;  Kd;te;jpUe;jhy;; ,e;j Nahridia Kd;nkhope;j me;j  mikg;gpd; mjpfhupf;F tprpj;jpukhd  eifr;Rit czHT ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. 

fhuzk; jpUNfhzkiy efuk; rkhjhdj;ijf; fz;L> mjd; fhw;iwr; Rthrpj;J miu Ehw;whz;Lf;Fk; NkyhfpwJ.  

jpl;lkpl;l- ,iltplhj  rpq;fsf;  FbNaw;wk;  fhuzkhf jpUNfhzkiy  khtl;lj;jpy; rpWghd;ikauhf ,Ue;j rpq;fstH ,d;W ngUk;ghd;ikauhfTk; ngUk;ghd;ikauhf ,Ue;j jkpoH rpWghd;ikauhfTk; khw;wg;gl;Ls;shHfs;. 

,yq;iff;F Rje;jpuk; fpilj;j fhyk; njhl;L ,d;Wtiu jpUkiy khtl;lj;Jf;F jkpoH xUtH murhq;f mjpguhf epakdk; ngwtpy;iy vd;gJ ftdpf;fj; jf;fJ. guq;fpaH xUtH murhq;f  mjpguhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhH. Mdhy; jkpoH xUtH ,Jtiu ,Uf;ftpy;iy. murhq;f mjpgH gjtp kl;Lky;y fhzpg; gq;fPl;Lf;Fg; nghWg;ghTs;s  khtl;l fhzp mjpfhup (District Land Officer) gjtpAk; md;W njhlf;fk; ,d;Wtiu rpq;fstuhNyNa epug;gg;gl;L te;jpUf;fpwJ.  

,it xU jw;nrayhd epfo;T my;y. ,e;j khtl;lj;ij rpq;fs kag;gLj;Jtjw;F trjpahf jpl;lkpl;Nl gpd;gw;wg;gl;L tUk; Ngupdthjf; nfhs;ifahFk;.  

tl-fpof;F MSeH gjtpia Kd;ida  fhkpdp nghd;Nrfh  ,uh[pdhkh  nra;j NghJ mtuJ ,lj;Jf;F ,d;iwa Nk[H n[duy; mNrhfhit re;jpupfh muR mtru mtrukhf epakpj;jJ. 

jdJ ,uhZtg; gjtpapypUe;J Xa;Tngw;w 48 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;Fs; mNrhfh n[atHj;jdh tl-fpof;F MSduhfg; gjtpNaw;whH. 

tl-fpof;F khfhzj;jpy; jkpo;nkhop NgRNthNu ,d;Wk; ngUk;ghd;ikauhf ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. vdNt xU jkpoH MSduhf epakpf;fg; gLtNj epahakhFk;. xj;Jiog;Gj; jkpoHfspy; xUtiu me;jg; gjtpapy; mkHj;jpapUf;fyhk;. xj;Jiog;Gj; jkpoH kPJk; re;jpupfh muRf;F ek;gpf;ifapy;yh tpl;lhy;  Fiwe;j gl;rk; xU K];yPik MtJ MSeuhf epakpj;jpUf;fyhk;. Mdhy; rpq;fs muR xUNghJk; mg;gbr;  nra;ahJ. mg;gbr; nra;tJ mjd; vOjg;glhj my;yJ gpufldg; gLj;jg; glhj ,dthjf; nfhs;iff;F Kuzhf ,Uf;Fk;.  

khwp khwp Ml;rpf; fjpiuiag; gpbj;j If;fpa Njrpaf; fl;rpAk; =yq;fh Rje;jpuf; fl;rpAk;  jq;fSf;Fs; murpay; kl;lj;jpy; mbgl;Lf; nfhz;lhYk; tl-fpof;F khfhzj;jpy; jkpoUf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd G+kpapy; rpq;fstiuf; FbNaw;wp mjidr; rpq;fs kag;gLj;j ngUk;ghLgl;L tUfpd;wd.  ,jpy; rpq;fs Ml;rpahsHfs; Fwpg;gplj; jf;f ntw;wpAk; fz;Ls;shHfs;.  

I.Nj.fl;rp - =yq;fh Rje;jpu fl;rp ,e;j  ,uz;L rpq;fsg; Ngupdthjf; fl;rpfs; jq;fSf;Fs; Fj;Jg; gl;L ntl;Lg; gl;lhYk; jkpo; kz;zpy;  rpq;fsf; FbNaw;wj;ij KLf;fptpLtijg;  nghWj;jstpy; ,e;j ,uz;L fl;rpfSk; mz;zd; - jk;gpNghy; xw;Wikahfr;  nray;gLfpd;wd vd;gjw;F vLj;Jf; fhl;L mk;ghiuapy; nrd;w thuk; ele;J Kbe;j fy;Nyhahj; jpl;l nghd;tpoh Mz;Lf; nfhz;lhl;lkhFk;.   

,e;jg; nghd;tpohf; nfhz;lhl;lj;jpy;  murpaypy; fPupAk;  - ghk;Gk; Nghy; rz;il NghLk;  ePHg;ghrd kpd;rf;jp mikr;rUk; Jizg; ghJfhg;G mikr;rUkhd  mEUj;j ,uj;tj;ijAk;> If;fpa Njrpaf; fl;rpiar; NrHe;j vjpHf;fl;rpj; jiytH uzpy;  tpf;fpukrpq;fTk; xNu Nkilapy; ,uhk-,yl;RkzH Nghy; mUfUNf mkHe;jpUe;jhHfs;.  

tl-fpof;F khfhzj;jpYk;> Fwpg;ghf jpUNfhzkiy khtl;lj;jpYk; jpl;lkpl;l rpq;fsf; FbNaw;wq;fspdhy; Vw;gl;l kf;fs; njhif khw;wq;fis Fbj; njhif fzf;fPl;bd; %yk; mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.  

1881k; Mz;L jpUNfhzkiy khtl;lj;jpy; vz;zp 935 rpq;fstNu tjpj;J te;jhHfs;. ,J nkhj;j tpOf;fhl;by; 4.2.  Mdhy; xU Ehw;whz;L fopj;J mjhtJ 1981k; Mz;L rpq;fstHfsJ njhif 86> 341  Mf mjpfupj;Js;sJ. ,J nkhj;j tpOf;fhl;by; 33. 6. gpd;tUk; ml;ltiz ,e;jj; jiyfPo;  khw;wj;ij njspthff; fhl;LfpwJ. 

ml;ltiz 1

jpUNfhzkiy khtl;l kf;fs; njhif (1881-1981)

 

 

rpq;fstH

jkpoH

K];ypk;fs;

 

Mz;L

vz;zpf;if

tpOf;fhL

vz;zpf;if

tpOf;fhL

vz;zpf;if

tpOf;fhL

 

1881

935

4.2

14394

64.8

5746

25.9

 

1891

1109

4.3

17117

66.4

6426

25.0

 

1901

1203

4.2

17069

60.0

8258

29.0

 

1911

1138

3.8

17233

57.9

9714

32.6

 

1921

1501

4.4

18586

54.5

12846

37.7

 

1946

11606

15.3

33795

44.5

23219

30.6

 

1953

15296

18.2

37517

44.7

28616

34.1

 

1963

40950

29.6

54050

39.1

42560

30.8

 

1971

54744

29.1

71749

38.1

59924

31.8

 

1981

86341

33.6

93510

36.4

74403

29.0

 

 

,Nj rkak; ,Nj fhy fl;lj;jpy; fpof;F khfhzj;jpy; (jpUNfhzkiy> kl;lf;fsg;G> 1961 y; cUthf;fg;gl;l mk;ghiu khtl;lk;)  Vw;gl;l kf;fs; njhif khw;wj;ij gpd;tUk; ml;ltiz fhl;LfpwJ.

 

ml;ltiz 2

fpof;F khfhz kf;fs; njhif ( 1881-1981)

 

 

rpq;fstH

jkpoH

K];ypk;fs;

 

Mz;L

vz;zpf;if

tpOf;fhL

vz;zpf;if

tpOf;fhL

vz;zpf;if

tpOf;fhL

 

1881

5947

4.5

75408

61.35

43001

30.65

 

1891

7512

4.75

87701

61.55

51206

30.75

 

1901

8778

4.7

96296

57.5

62448

33.15

 

1911

6909

3.75

101181

56.2

70409

36.0

 

1921

8744

4.5

103551

53.5

75992

39.4

 

1946

23456

8.4

146059

52.3

109024

39.1

 

1953

46470

13.1

167898

47.3

135322

38.1

 

1963

109690

20.1

246120

45.1

185750

34.0

 

1971

148572

20.7

315560

43.9

248567

34.6

 

1981

243358

24.9

409451

41.9

315201

32.2

 


 

1881 k; Mz;by; 4.5 tpOf;fhlhf ,Ue;j rpq;fstH njhif 1981k; Mz;L 24. 9 tpOf;fhlhf mjpfupj;jJ. mNj rkak; jkpoHfSila tpOf;fhL 1881k; Mz;L 61.35 Mf ,Ue;J 1981y; 41.9 Mf tPo;r;rpaile;jJ. 

,e;j tPo;r;rpf;F kl;lf;fsg;G khtl;lj;jpy; fy; Xah ( gl;bg;gis MW)> kJW Xah> jpUNfhzkiyapy; my;iy-fe;jsha;> gjtpah (Kjypf;Fsk;) Nghd;w ghupa rpq;fsf; FbNaw;wj; jpl;lq;fis rpq;fs Ngupdthj muRfs; nfhz;L te;J epiwNtw;wpaNj fhuzkhFk;. ,tw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf mur mDruizAld; jkpoHfsJ fhzpfspYk;> Nfhtpy; fhzpfspYk; rl;l tpNuhjkhfr; rpq;fstH FbNawpaJk; fhuzkhFk;.  

1981k; Mz;Lf;Fg; gpd;dH Fbrd fzpg;gPL vLf;fg; gltpy;iy. 2001y; FbtuT fzpg;gPL vLf;f ,Ug;gjhf muR mwptpj;Js;sJ. mjd;NghJ jkpoHfsJ vz;zpf;ifAk; tpOf;fhLk; ,df; fytuq;fs;> Gyg;ngaHTfs;> ,lg;ngaHTfs; fhuzkhf ngUksT tPo;r;rpailAk; vd vjpHghHf;fyhk;. 

jpUNfhzkiyia jkpoHfsplk; ,Ue;J ifg;gw;w Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ rpq;fs Ngupdthj muRfspd; ePz;l fhyj; jpl;lkhFk;. Ik;gJf; filrpfspy; jpUNfhzkiyia mz;ba gFjpfspy; =khGu> mf;NghGu FbNaw;wf; fpuhkq;fs; cUthfptpl;ld. ""rk;ge;jH Guk;"" vd;w ngaupy; jkpo; kPdtH tPlikg;Gj; jpl;lj;jpy; FbapUe;j jkpoHfis rpq;fstHfs; ntl;bf; nfhiynra;J vQ;rpatHfis fiyj;Jtpl;L mjpy; tNyhj;fhukhf FbNawpAs;shHfs;. ,Nj Nghy; ,e;J Myaq;fspd; jPHj;jj; jpUtpoh eilngWk;  jPHj;jf; flw;fiug; gpuNjrKk; jkpo; kPdtHfs; fiutiy  kPd;gpbj;jYf;Fg; gad;gLj;jp te;j ""caHe;j ghL"" flw;fiug; gFjpAk; rpq;fstHfshy; Mf;fpukpf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ. 

1997k; Mz;L Ig;grpj; jpq;fspy; jpUNfhzkiy  fPupj;Njhl;lg; gFjpapy; jpUkiy efurigahy; 60 ,yl;r &gha; nrytpy; fl;b Kbf;fg;gl;l nghJr; re;ij rpq;fs ,uhZtk;> rpq;fs tHj;jfHfs; ,tHfsJ vjpHg;ghy; %lg;gl;Lf; fplf;fpwJ. jpUkiyapy; tHj;jfk;> Fwpg;ghf kPd;> kuf;fwp tpahghuk; EhW  tpOf;fhL rpq;fstHfs; ifapy; ,Ug;gJ ,q;F Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.   

jpUNfhzkiy rkhjhd efukhfg; gpufldg;gLj;jp mjid xU tHj;jfj; JiwKfkhf mgptpUj;jp nra;tjd; %yk; NkYk;  mq;Fs;s rpq;fstHfspd; vz;zpf;ifia mjpfupg;gNj re;jpupfh murpd; me;juq;f Nehf;fKk; jpl;lKkhFk;. 

"" jpUNfhzkiyia rkhjhd efuhf gpufldk; nra;Ak; A+nd];Nfhtpd; Kd;nkhopit vdJ murhq;fk; kpf kfpo;r;rpAld; Vw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. ehl;by; rkhjhdk;> ,ay;G epiyik Vw;gLj;j ehk; cWjp G+z;L nray;gl;L tUfpNwhk;. mjpy; ehk; ntw;wpailNthk; vd;gjpy; vkf;F ek;gpf;ifAz;L"" vd;W rdhjpgjp NgrpapUg;gjd; mHj;jk; jpUNfhzkiyia ifg;gw;Wtjpy; murhq;fk; ntw;wpngWk; mjpy; jdf;F  ek;gpf;ifAz;L vd;gJjhd;. 

ekJ kuGtopj; jhafj;jpd; ngUk;gFjpia ehk; ,oe;J tpl;Nlhk;. fpof;F khfhzj;jpy; %d;wpy; ,uz;L epyg;gug;ig rpq;fsf; FbNaw;wj;jpw;Fg; gwpnfhLj;J tpl;Nlhk;. 

 kl;lf;fsg;G khtl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;J 1961y; mk;ghiu khtl;lk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJk;>

,Nj fhyfl;lj;jpy; mk;ghiuj; NjHjy; njhFjpAk; (1963) NrUtpy NjHjy; njhFjpAk; (1976) rpq;fstHfSf;fhf cUthf;fg;gl;lJk; mjid cWjp nra;fpwJ. 

jpUNfhzkiy efuk; rkhjhd efukhfg; gpufldk; nra;ag;gl;lij ehk; NghHg; gpufldkhfNt mHj;jk; nfhs;sy;  Ntz;Lk;.  

Kbthf  vkJ kuGtopj; jhafj;ij rpq;fsg; Ngupdthj Mf;fpukpg;Gf;F epue;jukhf ,og;Nghkh? my;yJ Nghuhb mij kPog; ngWNthkh? (ek;ehL-Nk 1999)