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jkpoH kPJ elj;jg;gl;l Gwgz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;G!

 (jpUkfs;)

(1)

jkpopdk; njhd;ik tha;e;j ,dk;. jkpo;nkhop ,d;Wk; capHj; Jbg;NghL thOk;  cyf nkhopfspy;> kpfg; goikahd nkhopfspy; jkpo;nkhopAk; xd;W. jkpo;; nkhopf;F ,Uf;Fk; ,yf;fpa tsk; Vida nkhop ,yf;fpaq;fistpl caHthdJ. ,e;jpaUs; jkpoH nkhopahYk;> ehfupfj;jpdhYk; rpwe;jtH vd;gJ nkhop Muha;r;rpahYk;> mfo;thuha;r;rpahYk; epWtg; gl;l cz;ikfshFk;. ,jid -

""fy;tpapy; rpwe;j jkpo;ehL -Gfo;f;

fk;gd; gpwe;j jkpo;ehL ...

ts;Std; jd;id cyfpdpf;Nf -je;J

thd;Gfo; nfhz;l jkpo;ehL- neQ;ir

as;Sk; rpyg;gjpfhu nkd;NwhH- kzp

ahuk; gilj;j jkpo;ehL""  

vd;W kfhftp Rg;gpukzpa ghujpahH Nghw;wpg; ghLthH. Mdhy; mtNu jd; fhyj;Jj;  jkpoHfs; jq;fs; gok; ngUikiaAk; GfioAk; njupahJ ehkkJ jkpouha; ,Ug;gijapl;Lf; foptpuf;fg;gLthH.  

Nrud; jk;gp rpyk;ig ,irj;jJk;

   nja;t ts;Std; thd;kiw fz;lJk;

ghupy; ey;ypirg; ghz;ba NrhoHfs;

   ghuspj;jJk;> jHkk; tsHj;jJk;

Kd;dH ehL  jpfo;e;j ngUikAk;

   %z;bUf;Fkpe; ehspd; ,fo;r;rpAk;

md;d ahTk; mwpe;jpyH ghujj;

   jhq;fpyk;gapy; gs;spAl; NghFeH!

xt;nthU ,dj;jpw;Fk; xt;nthU fhyk; nghw;fhykhfj; jpfo;e;jpUf;fpwJ. jkpopdj;ijg; nghWj;jstpy; rq;ffhyNk jkpouJ nghw;fhykhFk;. ,jid ghujpahH thHj;ijapy; $w Ntz;Lk; vd;why; cz;ik ,J ntWk; Gfo;r;rp ,y;iy.  

KbAil Nte;jHfs; %tUk; nfhw;wk; itj;J rPNuhLk; rpwg;NghLk;> NgNuhLk; GfNohLk;>  mwj;NjhLk; kwj;NjhLk; ghuhz;l fhyk; mJ. 

rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fshd vl;Lj; njhif> gj;Jg;ghl;L> gjpnzd;fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fs; jkpoupd; xg;gw;w  gz;ghl;Lr; rpwg;Gf;Fk; ehfupfr; rpwg;Gf;Fk; rhd;W gfUtd. 

rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpy; fs;isAk; jPiaAk; NrHj;J- ey;y fhw;iwAk; thdntspiaAk; NrHj;Jj; njs;S jkpo;g; GyNthH nra;j jPQ;Ritf; fhtpaq;fshd Ik;ngUk; fhg;gpaq;fs; jkpo; md;idapd; Gfio jpf;nfl;Lk; kzk; tPrpg; gug;gpd. fhypy; rpyk;G (rpyg;gjpfhuk;)> ,ilapy; Nkfiy (kzpNkfiy)> fhjpy; Fz;lyk; (Fz;lyNfrp)> ifapy; tis (tisahgjp)> khHgpy; rpe;jhkzp (rPtfrpe;jhkzp) mtspd; ,aw;if moFf;F NkYk; moF NrHj;jd. 

jkpoupd; nkhop NtW> fiy NtW> tho;f;if Kiw NtW. jkpou; Mupaupd; ( tlnkhopahsupd;) epd;W Kw;wpYk; NtW gl;ltH vd;gJ Muha;r;rpahy; Nghe;j cz;ik. gz;ilr; rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; ,jid nka;g;gpf;fpd;wd. 

,Ue;Jk; filf; fof fhy ,WjpapYk;> rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpYk; jkpoH tho;f;ifapy; Mq;fhq;Nf ,Us; R+oj; njhlq;fpd. njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; jiyfhl;ba gpwnkhop> gpw ,d> gpw gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;G jkpofj;jpy; gbg;gbahff; fhy;nfhs;sj; njhlq;fpaJ. 

gpw nkhop> gpw ,dg; gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;gpdhy; jkpo; nkhop jho;Tw;wJ. jkpo;kuGf;F khwhd tho;f;ifKiw jkpouplk; GFe;jJ. rhjp> rkar; Ropapy; rpf;fp jkpopdk; jho;e;jJ.  jkpoupd; gof;f tof;fq;fs; khwpd. kzKiw khwpaJ. Nfhtpy;fSk; kjr; rlq;FfSk; gy;fpg; ngUfpd. ,tw;wpd; gadhf jkpoHfs;  nkhop> gz;ghl;Lr; rpwg;ig ,oe;J ngaustpy; jkpouhf thoj; jiyg;gl;lhHfs;. jkpoHfs;  jha;nkhopiag;  Nghw;whJ tpl;lhHfs;. jkpo;f; fiyfis tsHf;fhJ tpl;lhHfs;. jkpo;  ,dj;jpd; kuigf; fhj;jy; nra;ahJ tpl;lhHfs;.  Mupag; gz;ghl;Lf;Fk; tlnkhop Mjpf;fj;jpw;Fk; mbikahdhHfs;.  

jkpo; kd;dHfs; jkpiog; Gwf;fzpj;J tlnkhopia mupahrdj;jpy; mkHj;jpdhHfs;. fsg;gpuH> gy;ytH fhye; njhl;L (1700 Mz;Lfs;) mz;ikf; fhyk;tiu  jkpoH rk];fpUjj;ij 'Njtghi\" vd;W vz;z itf;fg;gl;ldH. mtHfsJ   nrhe;j nkhopahd jkpo;nkhop "ePrghi\" vd MupaHfshy; ek;g itf;fg;gl;ldH.  Njtghi\ NgrpNahH NjtHfs; vd;Wk; ePrghi\ NgrpNahH xl;L nkhj;jkhf ePrHfs; vd;Wk;  jkpoHfNs xj;Jf; nfhs;s itf;fg;gl;ldH. jkpioAk; rk];fpUjj;ijAk; rup  ghjp ghjpahff;  fye;J vOJtJ jkpOf;F monfd;Wk; ngUiknad;Wk; vz;z itf;fg; gl;lJ. gpw;fhyj;jpy; jkpoHfis mbikg; gLj;jp Mz;l NghHj;Jf;NfaH> xy;yhe;jH> Mq;fpNyaH> nkhfyhaH> njYq;fH> fd;dlH> kfhuhl;baH ,tHfsJ nkhopf;Fk; Njtj; jd;ikia jkpoHfs; nfhLj;jhHfs;.  

ntspg;gif NghjhJ vd;gJ Nghy; jkpoHfsJ nkhopg;gw;iwf; nfLf;f xU rpy jkpoHfs; cl;gifahf Kioj;jhHfs;. 

""tlEhiy tpl;Lj; jdpNa jkpo;Ehy; elthjJ epakNk""  

vdr; nrhd;dtH ',yf;fzf; nfhj;J' vOjpa rhkpehj NjrpfH. 

""jkpo;Ehw;F mstpiy mtw;Ws;
  xd;Nw ahapDk; jdpj;jkpo; cz;Nlh"" 

vd;Wk;  

""Ie;njOj;jh jhnyhU ghilnad;
wiwaNt ehZtH mwpTilNahNu!
Mifahy; ahDk; mJNt mwpf"" 

vd;Wk; mbikg; Gj;jp Kw;W KOjhf jiyf;Nfwpa epiyapy; cswpa jk;gpuhDk; ,e;j rhkpehj NjrpfNu. 

,e;jg; gpd;Gyj;jpy;jhd; maHye;jpy; gpwe;J jkpo;ehl;by; fpwpj;Jtj;ijg; gug;Gk; rka mbfshuhf FbNawpa lhf;lH fhy;LNty; mbfshH ( 1814-1892) mtHfs; jkpopd; ,dpikahYk;> ePHikahYk; ftug;gl;L jpuhtpl nkhopfis Muha;e;J "jpuhtpl nkhopfspd; xg;gpyf;fzk;" vd;w mupa Ehy; vOjp jkpo;nkhop "caH jdpr; nrk;nkhop" vd;w cz;ikia epiyehl;bdhH.  mJfhWk; NkNy nrhy;ypathW tlnkhopNa ,e;jpa nkhopfs; vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk;  jha;nkhopnad;Wk;> mJ Njt ghi\ vd;Wk; vz;zp me;j khiaapy; %o;fp jkpoHfs; tho;e;J te;jJ mtHfs; gLghjhsj;jpy; tPo;e;J fple;jjw;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhFk;.

 

fhy;LNty; mbfshH fhyj;jpy; rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; ntspAyfj;jpw;Fj; njupahJ kiwe;J fple;jd. njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij gbj;J mwpaTk; mtUf;F tha;g;G ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mg;gbahd tha;g;Gf;fs; ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; mtuJ Muha;r;rp KOik ngw;wpUf;Fk;.,d;wsTk; jkpoHfs; nkhop> gz;ghl;Lj; jsj;jpy; Mupa khiaapypUe;J jq;fis Kw;whf tpLtpj;Jf; nfhs;stpy;iy. jkpoHfsJ kzKiw mjw;F xU vLj;Jf; fhl;lhFk;. rq;f fhyj; jkpoH jpUkzKiwf;Fk;  ,f;fhy itjPfj;  jpUkzKiwf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s NtW ghl;il mLj;j Kiw ghHg;Nghk;.

 

 

jkpoH kPJ elj;jg;gl;l Gwgz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;G!

jpUkfs;

(2) 

jkpo;nkhopapy; ,d;W fhzg;gLk; kpfg; gioikahd Ehy; njhy;fhg;gpaH ,aw;wpa njhy;fhg;gpakhFk;. ,J Fiwe;jJ 2>500 Mz;Lfhyj; njhd;ik tha;e;j Ehy; vd;W mwpQHfshy; fzpf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ. vs;spy; ,Ue;J vz;nza; vLg;gJ Nghy; ,yf;fpaj;jpy; ,Ue;J ,yf;fzk; gpwf;Fk; vd;gjhy; njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpw;F gy Mapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dNu jkpo;nkhopapy; Vuhskhd ,yf;fpaq;fs; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. njhy;fhg;gpaNu njhy;fhg;gpa R+j;jpuq;fspy; $wg;gLk; tof;FfSf;F rhd;W fhl;l ' vd;g' > "vd;kdhH GytH"> 'vd nkhopg' 'vd nkhopg-caH nkhopg; GytH' vd Vwf;Fiwa 260 ,lq;fspy; (nkhj;j R+j;jpuq;fs; 1611) Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.  

Vida nkhop ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; vOj;J> nrhy; ,uz;Lf;FNk ,yf;fzk; $w njhy;fhg;gpak; vOj;J>  nrhy;> nghUs; vd %d;Wf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; gilj;Js;sJ. vdNt ,e;j nghUs; ,yf;fzk;; jkpo;nkhopf;Nf rpwg;ghdJ MFk;. 

,e;jg; nghUs; mjpfhuj;jpy; njhy;fhg;gpaH gz;ila jkpoHfsJ tho;f;if Kiw>NghH Kiw>  gz;ghL> kuG> nra;As;tif ,tw;iw tpupj;J ciuf;fpd;whH. 

tho;f;ifia mfk; Gwk; vdg; gpupg;gJ gz;ilf;fhy jkpoHfsJ tof;fhFk;. kPz;Lk; mfj;ij fstpay;> fw;gpay; vd ,uz;lhf tFj;jdH. fstpay; vd;gJ clyhy; Ntwhfp Mdhy; cs;sj;jhy; xj;j jiytd;-jiytp kw;wtH mwpahJ md;NghLk; mUNshLk; goFtJ MFk;. fw;gpay; vd;gJ jha; je;ijaH ghHj;J ,d;dhUf;F ,d;dhH nghUj;jk; vdf; fz;L jiytd;-jiytpia jpUkzj;jpy; ,izg;gjhFk;. nghJthf fstpaypy; Muk;gkhFk; cwT ngw;NwhH ,irTld; fw;gpay; jpUkzj;jpy; KbAk;. Gweilahf jiytd; - jiytp ngw;NwhH rk;kjk; ngwhj epiyapy; mtHfSf;Fj; njupahky; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;tJk; cz;L. ,jid cld;Nghf;F vd;W njhy;fhg;gpak; etpYk;. 

,yf;fpak; ,e;j jiytd;-jiytp cwit newpg;gLj;jp mjidNa ghLnghUshff;nfhz;L rKjha tho;f;ifia rpwf;f itf;fpwJ. mj;jifa ,yf;fpaq;fspy; ghL nghUs;fs;  vg;gbnay;yhk; mika Ntz;Lk;  vd;gij tifg;gLj;jp Kiwg;gLj;jpr;  nrhy;tNj nghUs; ,yf;fzkhFk;. vdNt nghUs; vd;gJ nghUshjhu Nehf;fpy; Fwpf;fg;gLk; nghUisf; FwpahJ Mz;> ngz; cwT njhlHghd fstpay;> fw;gpay; tho;f;ifiaf; Fwpg;gjhFk;. ,jidg; ghLk; ghly;fs; Kjw;nghUs; (fhyKk;>  ,lKk;)> fUg;nghUs; ( nja;tk;>  tpyq;F> gwit> kuq;fs; )> cupg;nghUs; (,Uj;jy; (Ky;iy)> GzHjy;(FwpQ;rp)> Cly; (kUjk;)> ,uq;Fjy; (nea;jy;)> gpupT(ghiy) ,tw;iw cs;slf;fpajhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. 

r%fj;jpd; mbj;jsk; FLk;gk;. FLk;gj;jpd; mbj;jsk; jpUkzk;. tho;f;ifapd;   cWjpg; nghUl;fs; %d;W. mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk; vd;gNj me;j %d;WkhFk;. ,e;j %d;W cWjpg; nghUl;fspYk; ,d;gj;Jf;Nf jkpoHfs; Kjy; ,lk; ey;fpdhHfs;. ,d;gj;Jf;fhfNt nghUs;.  nghUs; <l;ly; mwk; nra;tjw;fhf> mJTk; ,y;ywj;jpy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L mwk; nra;jy;. 

njhy;fhg;gpak; fsT kzj;ijAk;> fhjy; kzj;ijAk; xUNrug; NgRk;. njhy;fhg;gpak; NghyNt mfj;Jiw ,yf;fpaq;fSk; fstpay;> fw;gpay; ,uz;ilAk; rpwg;gpj;Jf; $Wk;. ,jpy; vJ caHe;jJ> vJ jho;e;jJ vd;w epiy ,Uf;ftpy;iy. xU fhy fl;lj;jpy; xU rpyH nra;j jtWfshy; jpUkzk; vd;w rlq;F Kiw Ngjhd;wpaJ. ,jidj; njhy;fhg;gpak; - 

'ngha;Ak; fsTk; Njhd;wpa gpd;dH
IaH ahj;jdH fuzk; vd;g'
(fw;gpay; 3) 

vdf; $Wk;. IaH vd;why; rhd;NwhH> fuzk; vd;why; rlq;F vd;W nghUs;. 

rq;f fhyj; jkpoHfsJ jpUkzk; vspikahfTk;> rlq;Ffs; mw;wjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. jP tyk; ,y;iy. mk;kp kpjpj;J mUe;jjp ghHj;jy; ,y;iy. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf GNuhfpjUk; tlnkhopf; $r;rYk; ,y;yNt ,y;iy.

mfehEhW vl;Lj;njhif Ehy;fspy; xd;W. mjpy; cs;s 400 ghly;fs; ntt;NtW fhyj;jpy; (fp.K. 350 - fp.gp.200) ntt;NtW GytHfshy; ghlg;gl;lit. ,jpy; fhzg;gLk; ,uz;L ghly;fs; goe;jkpoupd; jpUkzKiwia tHzpf;fpd;wd.  mtw;Ws; xd;W ey;yhT+H fpohH vd;w  nre;jkpo;g; GytH ghba ghly;. gpupe;J te;j jiykfidj;  Njhop thapypy; top  kWj;j NghJ gz;L epfo;e;j jdJ jpUkzehs; epfo;r;rpia jiytd; Njhopf;F nkhope;jthW. 

""cOe;Jjiyg; nga;j nfhOe;fdp kpjit
ngUQ;Nrhw; wkiy epw;g epiufhy;
jz;ngUk; ge;jHj; jUkzy; nQkup
kidtpsf; FWj;J khiy njhlupf;
fidapUs; mfd;W ftpd; ngW fhiyf;
Nfhs;fhy; ePq;fpa nfhLntz; jpq;fs;

Nfby; tpog;Gfo;  ehliy te;njd
Tr;rpf; Fle;jH Gj;jfy; kz;ilaH
nghJnra; fk;giy KJnrk; ngz;bH
Kd;dTk; gpd;dTk; Kiw Kiw jhuj;jug;
Gjy;tw; gae;j jpjiyat; tapw;W
thypio kfspH ehy;tH $bf;
"fw;gpdpd; thohm ew;gy Tjtpg;
ngw;Nwhw; ngl;Fk; gpizia Mnfd
ePnuhL nrhupe;j <upjo; myup
gy;ypUq; fJg;gpd; ney;nyhL jaq;f
tJit ed;kzk; fope;j gpd;iwf;
fy;nyd; Rk;ikaH nQNunudg; GFje;J
"Ngupy; fpoj;jp ahnfd" jkH ju
Xupy; $l;ba Tld;GzH fq;Fw;
nfhLk;Gwk; tis,f; Nfhbf; fypq;fj;
njhLq;fpds; fple;j NthHGwe; jkP,
Kaq;fy; tpUg;nghL Kfk;Gij jpwg;g
tQ;rpds; capHj;j fhiy ahoepd;
neQ;rk; glHe;j njQ;rh Jiunad
tpd;dif apUf;ifg; gpd;ahd; tpdtypw;
nrQ;R+l; nlhz;Fio tz;fhJ Jay;tu
mfkyp Atifa shfp KfdpFj;
njha;nad tpiwQ;rp NahNs khtpd;
klq;nfhz; kij,a Nehf;fpd;
xLq;fP Njhjp khm NahNs. ""

,jd; ciuia mLj;j fpoik ghHg;Nghk;.

 

 

 

 

jkpoH kPJ elj;jg;gl;l Gwgz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;G!

(jpUkfs;)

(3)

""vq;fs; jpUkzehsd;W cOe;jk; gUg;Gld; $l;br; rikj;j> gf;Ftkhff; Fioe;j nghq;fNyhL> kiyNghy; Ftpe;j  ngUQ; Nrhw;wpid cz;gtHfs; $l;lk;  epiwe;jpUe;jJ.  

tupirahf fhy;fis el;Lf; FspHe;j kzg; ge;jy; KOJk; ntspapypUe;J nfhz;Lte;j ntz;kzy; gug;gg; gl;bUe;jJ.  

kidapy; tpsf;F Vw;wp  kyH khiyfis ge;jy; KOJk; neUf;fkhfj;  njhq;f tpl;L kpfmofhf myq;fupj;Js;shHfs;. jpUkz tPl;by; kidtpsf;Ffis Vw;wp  itj;J xspngwr; nra;Js;shHfs;. 

 GfopidAila jpq;fSld; $ba cNuhfpzp ed;dhs; Fw;wkw;wJk; tho;tpw;F ey;yJ gaf;Fk; mlHe;j ,Us; ePq;fp> tpbay; njhlq;Fk; tdg;G kpF Neuj;jpy; jpUkz tpoh njhlq;FfpwJ.  

jiyapy; ed;ePHf; Flj;jpidj; jhq;fpAk;> ifapy; mfd;w ghj;jpuj;ij Ve;jpf; nfhz;Lk;> jpUkzj;ij nra;J itf;Fk;> fyfyg;Gld; $ba Kjpa kq;fy tho;turpaH ePHf; Flq;fis Kd;NdAk; gpd;NdAk; KiwKiwahfj; je;jpl kzkfis ed; ePuhl;bdH. 

ey;y kf;fisg; ngw;W mb tapw;wpy; tup tupahfj; jOk;Gfs; nfhz;l kzptapW tha;e;j kq;fy kfspH ehy;tH Jha MilfisAk; mzpfisAk; mzpe;J $bepd;w kzkfsplk; 'cd;id mile;j fztid tpUk;gpf; $bf; "fw;G newpapd;Wk; jtwhky; ey;ywq;fisr; nra;J> fztd; tpUk;gj;jf;f kidtpahhf mtid tho;ehs; KOJk; ed;F Ngzpf; fhj;J thOk; vz;zj;ijf; iff; nfhz;L tho;thahf!" vd;W ePUld; FspHe;j ,jo;fs; cs;s G+f;fisAk; Gjpa ney;iyAk; Jhtp tho;j;jpajhy; kzkspd; mlHj;jpahd fupa $e;jypy; mit Njhw;wkspf;f> jpUkzk; ,dpNj epfo;fpwJ.  

mjd;gpd; MHtj;JlDk;> Muthuj;JlDk; R+o;e;j cwtpdH ',d;W Kjy; ePAk; ngupa kidf; fpoj;jp Mfptpl;lha;' vd;W Nfyp Ngrp kzkfSf;F NfhbALj;jp nky;ypa myq;fhuq;fisr; nra;J> tdg;Gld; $ba KjypuT miwf;Fs; cld; $ba GzHr;rpf;Fupa md;wpuNt mtis mDg;gp itj;jdH. mt;tiwf;Fs; EioAk; kzkfs; cLj;jpa Gjpa Glitf;Fs; jd;id xLf;fpf; nfhz;L> jd; ,dpa fztd; ,Uf;Fk; ,lk; Nehf;fpr; nry;fpd;whs;. 

mg;NghJ mts; Gj;jhilapy; xLq;fp  Kfk; Gijj;Jf; fple;jhs;. mtisj; jOTk; tpUg;gj;NjhL Kfj;ij %ba Jzpiar; rw;Nw tpyf;f  mts; mjw;F mQ;rp ngU%r;R tpl;lhs;. eLq;fp xLq;fpdhs;. "Vd; gae;jid> cd; kdjpy; cs;sij cs;sthW vd;dplk; $W' vd tpdhtpNdd;.  mg;NghJ khidg;Nghy; klik nfhz;ltSk;> nrUf;fpidAila Nehf;fpidAilatSk;> FspHe;j $e;jiyAilatSk;> khepwj;jpidAilatSkhfpa kzkfs;> mfk; kyHe;j kfpo;r;rpasha; Kfk; jho;j;jp vd; fhjyp nkype;j kly; nfhz;l fhjpy; mzpe;jpUe;j rpte;j kzpfs; gjpj;j mofpa Fiofs; mira tpiue;J te;J jdf;Fupatid tzq;fpdhs;. Mjyhy;  mts; vf;fhyj;Jk; vd;ghy; md;Gilats;. mjid eP mwpaha;"" vd;W Njhopaplk; $wpdhd;.  

rq;ffhyj; jkpouJ jpUkz newpia ghlypy; glk;gpbj;J itj;j GytH ey;yhT+H fpohH mtHfSf;F ehk; ed;wp nrhy;yf; flikg; gl;Ls;Nshk;. mtuJ nrhy;Nyhtpaj;ijg; gbf;Fk;NghJ vkJ Kd;NdhuJ ehfupfr; rpwg;ig> gFj;jwpit vz;zp kdk; G+upg;gilfpwJ.  

GytH ey;yhT+H fpohH fhjyhy; gpizf;fg;gl;l jiytd; - jiytpaJ Kjy; ,uit vg;gb kpf ehfuPfkhf> kpf espdkhf  jiytd; $w;whfr; vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwhH vd;gJk;  vz;zp kfpoj;jf;fJ.  

,e;j mfg;ghly; GzHjiyf; Fwpg;gjhy; Kjypy; nrhd;d kUjj; jpizf;F cupa cupg;nghUshFk;.   

tPl;L Kw;wj;jpy; Nghlg;gLk; jpUkzg; ge;jypy; ntz;kzy; gug;GtJ> G+r;ruk; fl;LtJ ,d;Wk; aho;g;ghzj;jpy; tof;fpy; ,Ue;J tUtJ vz;zp tpaf;fj; jf;fJ.  

kfkfis tho;j;Jk; NghJ ',d;W Kjy; ePAk; ngupa kdf;fpoj;jp Mfptpl;lha;" ('Ngupy; fpoj;jp MFvdj;') ,jpy; tUk; ngupa kdf;fpoj;jp vd;w nrhy;yhl;rpia ,d;Wk; 'ngupa gps;isahfp tpl;lhs;' vd;W ngz; G+g;nga;Jk; NghJ nrhy;Yk; tof;fpy; fhzyhk;.  

jPtyk;> mk;kp kpjpj;jy;> mUe;jjp ghHj;jy;> tlnkhop ke;jpuk;> ghHtjp guNkRtud; rhl;rpahfTk;> mf;fpdp rhl;rpahfTk;>  Kg;gj;J Kf;Nfhb NjtHfs; rhl;rpahfTk; vd;w rlq;nfy;;yhk; ,ilapy; te;j me;epa gz;ghl;L tof;fkhFk;.  

gpwd; kid tpioe;j Kg;gj;J Kf;Nfhb NjtHfsJ murdhd ,e;jpud; ngaiu jkpoH jpUkzj;jpd;NghJ nrhy;tJ Nghd;w ,Of;F NtW ,y;iy. jkpoH gz;ghl;Lf;F Ntyp mikj;j ts;StH 'gpwd; ,y;tpioahik' mjpfhuj;jpy; gpwd; kidtpia ,r;rpf;Fk; jd;ik ngupNahH ,lj;jpy; ,y;iynad;Wk;> mg;gb ,r;rpg;gtd; %ld; vd;Wk;> mtd; khl;L gif> ghtk;> mr;rk;> gop  ,e;ehd;Fk; ePq;fhnjd;Wk; gythW nkhopthH. ts;StH ,yf;fzg;gb ,e;jpud; gif> ghtk;> mr;rk;> gopf;F Mshd %ldhthd;. 

njhd;ik rhd;w jkpoHfspd; gz;gl;l ehfupfKk;> ngUikf;Fupa tho;Tk;> tpaj;jw;Fupa nkhopAk;> cyfshtpa rpe;jidAk;> rkag; nghJikAk;> ahJk; CNu ahtUk; NfspH vd;w tpupe;j ghHitAk; fsg;gpiuaH fhyk; njhl;L me;epa nkhop Mjpf;fj;jhYk;> Gwgz;ghl;Lj; jhf;Fjy;fshYk; tof;nfhope;jd.  

gpw;fhyj;jpYk; ,f; fhyj;jpYk; jkpoH ,y;yq;fspy; eilngWk; itjPfj;  jpUkzq;fspy; jkpo;nkhop js;sp itf;fg;gl;L Mupar; rlq;FfSk; nghUs; Gupahj rk];fpUj ke;jpuq;fSk; GFe;J nfhz;lJ jkpoHkPJ elhj;jg; gl;l  Gwg;gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;gpd; cr;rf;  fl;lkhFk;. jkpo;nkhopiaj; jkpoNu jho;j;jpa Nrhf tuyhw;wpd; nfhLKbahFk;.  

jkpoH jpUkzk; vd;gJ gpuhkzH ntWg;ghy; vOe;jjy;y. gpuhkziutpl itjpfj;ij nfl;bahfg; fl;bg; gpbf;Fk;  jkpoHfs; ngUk;ghd;ikapdH. my;yJ jkpoH jpUkzk; GNuhfpjHfspd; njhopiyf; ifg;gw;Wk; Nehf;NfhL nra;ag;gLtJk; my;y. khwhf jkpoH jq;;fs; tPl;Lj; jpUkzq;fis jkpopy;> jkpouhy;> jkpo;kuGg;gb vspa Kiwapy; elhj;jp vk; Kd;NdhH topapy; nre;jkpouha; tho top nra;tjhFk;.  

taJ te;Njhiuj; jpUj;JtJ eilKiwapy; vspjy;y. ,isa rKjhak; jkpoH jpUkzq;fis elhj;j Kd;tuNtz;Lk;. mjd; %yk; jkpo; nkhopapd; ePHikiaAk;> jkpoH kugpd; rpwg;igAk; kPz;Lk; jkpoupd; nghw;fhykhd rq;f fhyj;Jf;F xg;g itf;fyhk;.  jkpo;ehl;by; ,d;W 90 tpOf;fhL jpUKzq;fs; jkpo;j;  jpUkzq;fshf ,Ug;gij vz;zpr; nray;gLNthkhf.  

mfehEhw;wpd; kw;iwa ghliyAk; ( ghly; 136) ,g;NghJ ghHg;Nghk;. ,e;jg; ghliyg; ghbatH tpw;Whw;W  %nja;apdhH vd;w rq;fg; GytH. ,jpy; nrhy;yg;gLk; kzr; nra;jpAk; kzkfd; nrhy;tjhfNt Gidag;gl;Ls;sJ. 

""ikg;Gwg; GOf;fp nda;f;fdp ntz;NrhW
 tiuah tz;iknahL GiuNahHg; Ngzpg;
Gs;Sg; GzHe; jpdpa thfj; njs;nshsp
mq;fz; ,UtpRk;G tpsq;fj; jpq;fs;
rflk; kz;ba JfBH $l;lj;Jf;;
fbefH Gide;J flTs; Ngzpg;
gLkz KonthL g&cg;giz apkpo
tJit kz;zpa kfspH tpJg;Gw;Wg;
G+f;fZk; ,ikahH Nehf;FG kiwa
nkd;G+ thifg; Gd;Gwf; ftl;biy
goq;fd;W fwpf;Fk;  gak;gk yWif
joq;Fuy; thdpd; jiyg;ngaw; fPd;w
kz;Zkzp ad;d jhapjo;g; ghit
jz;zW KifnahL ntz;Zhy; R+l;bj;
JhTilg; nghype;J Nktuj; Jtd;wp
kiogl; ld;d kzky;yp ge;jH
,ioazp rpwg;gpw; ngaHtpaHg; ghw;wpj;
jkHekf; fPe;j jiyehs; ,utpy;
EtH ePq;F fw;gpndk; KapUlk; gLtp
KUq;fhf; fypq;f KOtJk; tis,g;
ngUk; GOf; Fw;wepd; gpiw Ejy; FWtpaH
cWtsp ahw;wr; rpWtiu jpwntd
thHt neQ;rnkhL NghHit tt;typd;
ciwfop rhspd; cUT ngaHe; jpikg;g
kiwjpw dwpah shfpg; ignad
ehzpds; ,iwQ;rp NahNs Ngzpg;
g&cg;gif ahk;gw; F&cj; njhil ePtpr;
RUk;gpkpH Ma;kyH Nta;e;j
,Uk;gy; $e;jy; ,Uz;kiw nahspj;Nj.
 

,jd; nghopg;Giu gpd;tUkhW.

nrk;kwpahl;bd; gpd; re;jpid Mf;fpa fwpnahL nea;ahsha ntspa Nrhw;wpid ,t;tstpdnjd;W $wg;glhj tz;ikAlNd Md;Nwhiu tpUk;gpaspj;J tz;Lfs; te;J $b ,dpa ,irnaOg;g mofpa ,lkfd;w Mfhak; tpsf;fkilaj; jpq;fs; cNuhfpzpapw; NrHjyhy; njspe;j xspAila Fw;we;jPUq; $LjYila ehspNyfhtiyAila khspifia myq;fupj;J topgL flTis tzq;fp khHr;ridaike;j FlKoTk;>  

kj;jsKk; gUj;j gythr;rpaKk; xypg;g< tJit epkpj;jkhf myq;fupf;fg; ngw;w jhjHfs; tpUg;Gw;Wg; G+g;NghYk; fz;fs; ,ikahky; Nehf;fp xJq;f> nky;ypa G+itAila mWfk; Gy;ypd; xypf;Fk; ,bf; FuYila Nkfj;jpd; Kjw;ngay; nga;J tpl;lTld; Kisj;J tse;j file;j ePykzpad;d ngupa  ,jo;fis cila  ghit Nghd;w G+tpdJ FspHe;j ewpa mUk;GfSlNd Nru nts;spa Ehyhw; fl;bajidr; R+l;b Jha Milia cLj;jp nghUe;Jjy; tu neUq;fp te;J ntspNa Nkfj;ijg; gug;gpdhy; xj;j kzy; gug;gpa ge;jupd; fz;Nz fyd;fis neUq;f mzpe;j rpwg;gpdhy; cz;lhFk; tpaHitiag; Nghf;fp  ,tis Nehf;fp ntWg;nghope;j fw;gpidAila vkJ capUld; nghUe;jpa ngz;Nz! 

tisahj Gjpa Mil KOtijAk; cLj;jpf; nfhz;L ngupa GOf;fj;ijAw;w epd; gpiw Nghd;w new;wpapd; fl;Nlhd;wpa tpaHg;ig kpf;f fhw;wpdhy; Mw;wNtz;br; rpwpJ nghOJ jpwg;ghahf>  

vd;w MirAw;w neQ;RlNd ,ts; NghHj;jpUe;j NghHitia ehd; thq;Ftjhy; clNd ciwapd;W fopj;j thisg;Nghyf; fz; kUz;L ,ikg;g mjid kiwf;Fk; jpwj;ij mwpahsha; tpUg;g kpFj;Jg; gUj;J  vjpH vjpH gpizj;j Mk;gypd; mofpa khiyia ePf;fp>

 

xypf;fpd;w mofpa kyiur; R+ba ngupa gythfpa $e;jiyAilats; ,Uspd; fz;Nz xJq;fp xspj;J epd;W nky;y ehzKw;Wj; jiy fto;e;J epd;wts;> ,g;NghJ Clh epd;wds; fhz;.  

(gjTiu)

ikg;Gwg; GOf;fpd; - fUfg;GOf;fpd Jha nea;.

g&g;giz- ngupa KuR xypf;f.

rflk; - cNuhfpzp.

KoT - kj;jsk;.

gak;G - Fop.

mkYjy;-neUq;Fjy;>

tpJg;G - Mir.

Nktu-nghUe;Jjy; tu.

Jtd;wp - neUq;fp.

gLtp-tpsp.

KUq;fh-tisahj.

cUT-,q;f fz;zpd; tbT.

xa;nad - nky;y. 

njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ciunra;j eHr;rpdhHf;fpdpaH mfehEhW 86k; ghliyAk;> 136k; ghliyAk; - 

"fw;G vdg;gLtJ fuznkhL Gzuf;
nfhsw;Fup kugpd; fpotd; fpoj;jpiaf;
nfhilf;Fup kugpNdhH nfhLg;gf; nfhs;tJNk"

 "ngha;Ak; tOTk; Njhd;wpa gpd;dH
IaH ahj;jdH fuzk; vd;g"
 

vd;Dk; fw;gpay; R+j;jpuq;fSf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhff; fhl;bAs;shH. fhl;b -",jDs; tJitf;F Vw;w fuzq;fs; epfo;e;jthWk; jkH nfhLj;jthWk; fhz;f. Rw;wk; R+o;e;J epd;wJ. jkH mwpa kztiwia kzkf;fs; NrHe;jdH" vdf; $wpAs;shH. 

Kd;dH $wpathW ,e;j ,uz;L jpUkzq;fspYk; ,d;iwa jpUkzq;fspy; cs;s

(1) nghUs; Gupahj tl nkhop ke;jpuq;fs; ,y;iy.

(2) GNuhfpjH ,y;iy.

(3) vup Xk;gy; ,y;iy.

(4) jPtyk; ,y;iy.

(5) mk;kp kpjpj;jy; ,y;iy.

(6) mUe;jjp fhl;ly; ,y;iy.

(7) Nfhj;jpuk; $wy; Kjypad ,y;iy.  

,t;tpU jpUkzq;fisg; gw;wpf; $Wkplj;Jf; fhyk; nrd;w rupj;jpug; NguhrpupaH jpU. gp.b.rPdpthr ma;aq;fhH mtHfs; " ,g;gz;ilj; jpUkz epfo;r;rpfspy; vuptsHj;jy; ,y;iy> jPtyk; ,y;iy> ,J Kw;Wk; jkpoHf;Nf cupa jpUkzk;>"" vdf; Fwpj;jpUj;jy; ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. (Kw;Wk;. ed;wp -ek;ehL)